Chapter 1: Introduction to Project Management 1 Learning
Chapter 1: Introduction to Project Management 1 Learning Objectives Understand the growing need for better project management, especially for information technology projects Explain what a project is and provide examples of information technology projects
Describe what project management is and discuss key elements of the project management framework 2 Learning Objectives Discuss how project management relates to other disciplines Understand the history of project management Describe the project management profession, including recent trends in project management
research, certification, and software products 3 Project Management Statistics The U.S. spends $2.3 trillion on projects every year, an amount equal to one-quarter of the nations gross domestic product. The world as a whole spends nearly $10 trillion of its $40.7 trillion gross product on projects of all kinds. More than sixteen million people regard project management as their profession; on average, a project
manager earns more than $82,000 per year.* *PMI, The PMI Project Management Fact Book, Second Edition, 2001 4 More Information on Project Management More than half a million new information technology (IT) application development projects were initiated during 2001, up from 300,000 in 2000.* Famous business authors and consultants are stressing the importance of project management. As Tom Peters writes in his book, Reinventing Work: the Project 50,
To win today you must master the art of the project! *The Standish Group, CHAOS 2001: A Recipe for Success 5 Motivation for Studying Information Technology (IT) Project Management IT projects have a terrible track record A 1995 Standish Group study (CHAOS) found that only 16.2% of IT projects were successful and over 31% were canceled before completion, costing over $81 B in the U.S. alone
The need for IT projects keeps increasing In 2000, there were 300,000 new IT projects In 2001, over 500,000 new IT projects were started 6 Advantages of Using Formal Project Management
Better control of financial, physical, and human resources Improved customer relations Shorter development times Lower costs Higher quality and increased reliability Improved productivity
Better internal coordination Higher worker morale 7 What Is a Project? A project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to accomplish a unique product or service Attributes of projects
unique purpose temporary require resources, often from various areas should have a primary sponsor and/or customer involve uncertainty 8 Samples of IT Projects
Northwest Airlines developed a new reservation system called ResNet (see case study on companion Web site at www.course.com/mis/schwalbe) Many organizations upgrade hardware, software, and networks via projects Organizations develop new software or enhance existing systems to perform many business functions 9 The Triple Constraint
Every project is constrained in different ways by its Scope goals: What is the project trying to accomplish? Time goals: How long should it take to complete? Cost goals: What should it cost? It is the project managers duty to balance these three often competing goals 10 Figure 1-1. The Triple Constraint of Project Management
11 The 2001 Standish Group Report Showed Decided Improvement in Project Success compared to 1995 Time overruns significantly decreased to 163% compared to 222% Cost overruns were down to 145% compared to 189% Required features and functions were up to 67% compared to 61% 78,000 U.S. projects were successful
compared to 28,000 28% of IT projects succeeded compared to 16% 12 Why the Improvements? "The reasons for the increase in successful projects vary. First, the average cost of a project has been more than cut in half. Better tools have been created to monitor and control progress and better skilled project managers with better
management processes are being used. The fact that there are processes is significant in itself. 13 What is Project Management? Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities in order to meet project requirements
14 Figure 1-2. Project Management Framework 15 Project Stakeholders Stakeholders are the people involved in or affected by project activities Stakeholders include
the project sponsor and project team support staff customers users suppliers opponents to the project
16 9 Project Management Knowledge Areas Knowledge areas describe the key competencies that project managers must develop 4 core knowledge areas lead to specific project objectives (scope, time, cost, and quality) 4 facilitating knowledge areas are the means through which the project objectives are achieved (human resources, communication, risk, and procurement management)
1 knowledge area (project integration management) affects and is affected by all of the other knowledge areas 17 Project Management Tools and Techniques Project management tools and techniques assist project managers and their teams in various aspects of project management Some specific ones include Project Charter, scope statement, and WBS (scope)
Gantt charts, network diagrams, critical path analysis, critical chain scheduling (time) Cost estimates and earned value management (cost) See Table 1-1 on p. 11 for many more 18 How Project Management Relates to Other Disciplines Much of the knowledge needed to manage projects is unique to the discipline of project management
Project mangers must also have knowledge and experience in general management the application area of the project 19 Sample Gantt Chart The WBS is on the left, and each tasks start and finish date are shown on the right using a calendar timescale. 20
Sample Network Diagram Each box is a project task from the WBS. Arrows show dependencies between tasks. The bolded tasks are on the critical path. If any tasks on the critical path take longer than planned, the whole project will slip unless something is done. 21 Sample Enterprise Project Management Tool
In recent years, organizations have been taking advantage of software to help manage their projects throughout the enterprise. 22 Project Management Software By 2003, there were hundreds of different products to assist in performing project management Three main categories of tools exist: Low-end tools: Handle single or smaller projects well, cost under $200 per user Midrange tools: Handle multiple projects and users, cost $200-500 per user, Project 2000 most popular
High-end tools: Also called enterprise project management software, often licensed on a per-user basis Project 2002 now includes a separate version for enterprise project management (see Appendix A for details on Project 2002) 23
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