FINGERPRINTS History of Fingerprints HISTORY OF FINGERPRINTING Chinese
FINGERPRINTS History of Fingerprints HISTORY OF FINGERPRINTING Chinese used fingerprints to sign legal documents as far
back as three thousand years ago William Herschel, an English civil servant (India), required natives to sign contracts with an imprint of their right hand Hindu custom? HISTORY OF FINGERPRINTING
In 1880, Scottish physician, Henry Fauld wrote that skin ridge patterns could be important in identification work A thief left his fingerprint on a whitewashed wall compared with 1st suspect - No match; compared with 2nd suspect with positive association HISTORY OF FINGERPRINTING
Fauld offered to set up a system of fingerprints at Scotland Yard (at his own expense) Rejected in favor of the Bertillon System This decision reversed less than two decades later
HISTORY OF FINGERPRINTING The first systematic attempt at personal identification was devised and introduced by the French police expert, Alphonse Bertillon, in 1883. Bertillons System
Relied on: Portraite Parl Detailed description of the individual Full length and profile photographs Anthropometry A system of precise body measurements ANTHROPOMETRY
A method of identification Based upon the premise that the dimensions of the human skeletal system remained fixed from age 20 until death Eleven (11) measurements taken - to include height, width of head & length of left foot FRANCIS GALTON
In 1892, published the classic work Finger Prints In this book he discussed the anatomy of fingerprints and suggested methods for recording them Proposed three pattern types: loops,
whorls and arches FRANCIS GALTON No two prints are identical An individuals prints remain unchanged from one year to the next
SIR EDWARD HENRY Englishman In 1897, proposed another classification system which is still in use today Most English-speaking countries use some version of Henrys classification
system In the United States 1901 First systematic use of
fingerprints adopted by the New York Civil Service Commission 1904 American police received training in fingerprint techniques from Scotland Yards representatives 1924 Fingerprint records from the Bureau of Investigation and Leavenworth merged to form records for the new FBI Admissibility of Fingerprints
Challenged in the case of United States v. Byron C. Mitchell Argued under Daubert guidelines that fingerprints were not unique Judge upheld admissibility and ruled:
1. Human friction ridges are unique and permanent 2. Human friction ridge skin arrangements are unique and permanent PHYSIOLOGY OF FINGERPRINTS FUNDAMENTALS OF FINGERPRINTS FIRST PRINCIPLE:
Friction Ridges develop their Unique form in the fetus FUNDAMENTALS OF FINGERPRINTS SECOND PRINCIPLE: A Fingerprint will remain LARGELY UNCHANGED during an Individuals Lifetime
FUNDAMENTALS OF FINGERPRINTS THIRD PRINCIPLE: Friction Ridge Patterns and their details are UNIQUE No Two Fingers have yet been found to possess IDENTICAL RIDGE CHARACTERISTICS (even identical twins!!)
FUNDAMENTALS OF FINGERPRINTS FOURTH PRINCIPLE: FINGERPRINTS CAN BE SYSTEMATICALLY CLASSIFIED by GENERAL RIDGE PATTERNS FUNDAMENTALS OF FINGERPRINTS MINUTIAE - Ridge Characteristics Define Individuality
IDENTITY NUMBER RELATIVE LOCATION COMPARE POINT BY POINT
POSSIBLY 150 POINTS ON THE AVERAGE FINGERPRINT FUNDAMENTALS OF FINGERPRINTS MINUTIAE - Ridge Characteristics Define Individuality HOW MANY POINTS MAKE A MATCH? Depends on experience and knowledge of the examiner
Usually 8 to 16 FUNDAMENTALS OF FINGERPRINTS FRICTION SKIN RIDGES Palm Side of Fingers and Thumbs Soles of Feet Provide Firmer Grasp Resistance to Slippage Lines corresponding to Hills (ridges) & Valleys (grooves)
SKIN COMPOSED OF LAYERS OF CELLS EPIDERMIS - OUTER DERMIS - INNER LAYER DERMAL PAPILLAE IN BETWEEN SKIN SKIN RIDGES CONTAIN PORES
Openings for ducts from sweat glands Perspiration discharged to surface of skin Transfer is called LATENT FINGERPRINTS FUNDAMENTALS OF FINGERPRINTS ARCHES 5% LOOPS 60% - 65%
WHORLS 30% - 35% FUNDAMENTALS OF FINGERPRINTS ARCHES - least common of three general patterns RIDGES ENTER ONE SIDE OF PATTERN AND EXIT ANOTHER
PLAIN ARCHES - wavelike pattern TENTED ARCHES - sharp spike FUNDAMENTALS OF FINGERPRINTS LOOPS - most common type
Ridges enter one side and exit same side ULNAR LOOP - opens toward little finger RADIAL LOOP - opens toward thumb FUNDAMENTALS OF FINGERPRINTS LOOPS -
CORE TYPE LINES DELTA
FUNDAMENTALS FUNDAMENTALS OF OF FINGERPRINTS FINGERPRINTS WHORLS - FOUR TYPES
Plain Central pocket loop Double loop Accidental ALL HAVE TWO DELTAS & TYPE LINES
FINGERPRINT DEVELOPMENT Types of Fingerprints VISIBLE RIDGES PLACED ON A SURFACE AFTER CONTACT WITH A COLORED MATERIAL (blood, paint,grease, ink) Types of Fingerprints
PLASTIC RIDGES LEFT ON A SOFT MATERIAL (putty, wax, soap, dust) Types of Fingerprints LATENT HIDDEN OR INVISIBLE TRANSFER OF BODY PERSPIRATION OR OILS MUST BE ENHANCED Types of Surfaces
NON-POROUS GLASS, MIRROR, PLASTIC, PAINTED SURFACES ENHANCE WITH SUPER GLUE and/or POWDER Types of Surfaces POROUS PAPER, CARDBOARD, CLOTH ENHANCE WITH CHEMICALS
METHODS OF ENHANCEMENT FINGERPRINT POWDERS BLACK (white surfaces) GRAY (dark surfaces) FLUORESCENT (multi-colored surfaces) MAGNETIC (leather or rough plastic) ADHERES TO PERSPIRATION and/or BODY OILS
METHODS OF ENHANCEMENT CHEMICALS IODINE FUMING NINHYDRIN - REACTS WITH PROTEINS PHYSICAL DEVELOPER - SILVER NITRATE BASED - USED WHEN OTHER METHODS UNSUCCESSFUL
METHODS OF ENHANCEMENT CHEMICALS SUPER GLUE FUMING - CYANOACRYLATE ESTER
NON-POROUS SURFACES CREATE FUMES WITH HEAT PORTABLE WAND AVAILABLE METHODS OF ENHANCEMENT FLUORESENCE PERSPIRATION CONTAINS COMPONENTS THAT
FLUORESCE WHEN ILLUMINATED WITH LASER LIGHT HIGHLY SENSITIVE ALTERNATE LIGHT SOURCE
QUARTZ HALOGEN ZENON ARC INDIUM ARC
DOES NOT INTERFERE WITH DNA TESTING PRESERVATION AND COMPARISON OF FINGERPRINTS PRESERVATION OF ENHANCED PRINTS PHOTOGRAPHY
1:1 SCALE LIFTING TAPE HINGED LIFTER
PRESERVATION OF ENHANCED PRINTS DIGITAL IMAGING
SCANNER DIGITAL CAMERA VIDEO CAMERA ENHANCE WITH FILTERS, CONTRAST OR BRIGHTNESS REMOVE BACKGROUND COLORS SCALING / RESIZING TOOLS SIDE-BY-SIDE COMPARISON
AFIS Automated Fingerprint Identification System AFIS Automatic Scanning Devices Convert Fingerprint Image into Digital Minutiae
RIDGE ENDINGS BIFURCATIONS AFIS Types of Databases Arrest Prints (KNOWNS) Forensic Prints (CRIME SCENE) AFIS SEARCH ALGORITHM
DETERMINES DEGREE OF CORRELATION BETWEEN THE QUESTIONED AND KNOWN PRINTS AFIS THOUSANDS OF COMPARISONS PER SECOND
ALL SELECTED PRINTS VERIFIED BY TRAINED EXAMINER STANDARDS ENABLE AGENCIES TO EASILY EXCHANGE DATA FINGERPRINT EXAMINER
4 YEAR DEGREE 2+ YEARS TRAINING CERTIFICATION PROGRAM Written Test Proficiency Test Continuing Education International
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