FINGERPRINTS History of Fingerprints HISTORY OF FINGERPRINTING Chinese

FINGERPRINTS History of Fingerprints HISTORY OF FINGERPRINTING Chinese

FINGERPRINTS History of Fingerprints HISTORY OF FINGERPRINTING Chinese used fingerprints to sign legal documents as far

back as three thousand years ago William Herschel, an English civil servant (India), required natives to sign contracts with an imprint of their right hand Hindu custom? HISTORY OF FINGERPRINTING

In 1880, Scottish physician, Henry Fauld wrote that skin ridge patterns could be important in identification work A thief left his fingerprint on a whitewashed wall compared with 1st suspect - No match; compared with 2nd suspect with positive association HISTORY OF FINGERPRINTING

Fauld offered to set up a system of fingerprints at Scotland Yard (at his own expense) Rejected in favor of the Bertillon System This decision reversed less than two decades later

HISTORY OF FINGERPRINTING The first systematic attempt at personal identification was devised and introduced by the French police expert, Alphonse Bertillon, in 1883. Bertillons System

Relied on: Portraite Parl Detailed description of the individual Full length and profile photographs Anthropometry A system of precise body measurements ANTHROPOMETRY

A method of identification Based upon the premise that the dimensions of the human skeletal system remained fixed from age 20 until death Eleven (11) measurements taken - to include height, width of head & length of left foot FRANCIS GALTON

In 1892, published the classic work Finger Prints In this book he discussed the anatomy of fingerprints and suggested methods for recording them Proposed three pattern types: loops,

whorls and arches FRANCIS GALTON No two prints are identical An individuals prints remain unchanged from one year to the next

SIR EDWARD HENRY Englishman In 1897, proposed another classification system which is still in use today Most English-speaking countries use some version of Henrys classification

system In the United States 1901 First systematic use of

fingerprints adopted by the New York Civil Service Commission 1904 American police received training in fingerprint techniques from Scotland Yards representatives 1924 Fingerprint records from the Bureau of Investigation and Leavenworth merged to form records for the new FBI Admissibility of Fingerprints

Challenged in the case of United States v. Byron C. Mitchell Argued under Daubert guidelines that fingerprints were not unique Judge upheld admissibility and ruled:

1. Human friction ridges are unique and permanent 2. Human friction ridge skin arrangements are unique and permanent PHYSIOLOGY OF FINGERPRINTS FUNDAMENTALS OF FINGERPRINTS FIRST PRINCIPLE:

Friction Ridges develop their Unique form in the fetus FUNDAMENTALS OF FINGERPRINTS SECOND PRINCIPLE: A Fingerprint will remain LARGELY UNCHANGED during an Individuals Lifetime

FUNDAMENTALS OF FINGERPRINTS THIRD PRINCIPLE: Friction Ridge Patterns and their details are UNIQUE No Two Fingers have yet been found to possess IDENTICAL RIDGE CHARACTERISTICS (even identical twins!!)

FUNDAMENTALS OF FINGERPRINTS FOURTH PRINCIPLE: FINGERPRINTS CAN BE SYSTEMATICALLY CLASSIFIED by GENERAL RIDGE PATTERNS FUNDAMENTALS OF FINGERPRINTS MINUTIAE - Ridge Characteristics Define Individuality

IDENTITY NUMBER RELATIVE LOCATION COMPARE POINT BY POINT

POSSIBLY 150 POINTS ON THE AVERAGE FINGERPRINT FUNDAMENTALS OF FINGERPRINTS MINUTIAE - Ridge Characteristics Define Individuality HOW MANY POINTS MAKE A MATCH? Depends on experience and knowledge of the examiner

Usually 8 to 16 FUNDAMENTALS OF FINGERPRINTS FRICTION SKIN RIDGES Palm Side of Fingers and Thumbs Soles of Feet Provide Firmer Grasp Resistance to Slippage Lines corresponding to Hills (ridges) & Valleys (grooves)

SKIN COMPOSED OF LAYERS OF CELLS EPIDERMIS - OUTER DERMIS - INNER LAYER DERMAL PAPILLAE IN BETWEEN SKIN SKIN RIDGES CONTAIN PORES

Openings for ducts from sweat glands Perspiration discharged to surface of skin Transfer is called LATENT FINGERPRINTS FUNDAMENTALS OF FINGERPRINTS ARCHES 5% LOOPS 60% - 65%

WHORLS 30% - 35% FUNDAMENTALS OF FINGERPRINTS ARCHES - least common of three general patterns RIDGES ENTER ONE SIDE OF PATTERN AND EXIT ANOTHER

PLAIN ARCHES - wavelike pattern TENTED ARCHES - sharp spike FUNDAMENTALS OF FINGERPRINTS LOOPS - most common type

Ridges enter one side and exit same side ULNAR LOOP - opens toward little finger RADIAL LOOP - opens toward thumb FUNDAMENTALS OF FINGERPRINTS LOOPS -

CORE TYPE LINES DELTA

FUNDAMENTALS FUNDAMENTALS OF OF FINGERPRINTS FINGERPRINTS WHORLS - FOUR TYPES

Plain Central pocket loop Double loop Accidental ALL HAVE TWO DELTAS & TYPE LINES

FINGERPRINT DEVELOPMENT Types of Fingerprints VISIBLE RIDGES PLACED ON A SURFACE AFTER CONTACT WITH A COLORED MATERIAL (blood, paint,grease, ink) Types of Fingerprints

PLASTIC RIDGES LEFT ON A SOFT MATERIAL (putty, wax, soap, dust) Types of Fingerprints LATENT HIDDEN OR INVISIBLE TRANSFER OF BODY PERSPIRATION OR OILS MUST BE ENHANCED Types of Surfaces

NON-POROUS GLASS, MIRROR, PLASTIC, PAINTED SURFACES ENHANCE WITH SUPER GLUE and/or POWDER Types of Surfaces POROUS PAPER, CARDBOARD, CLOTH ENHANCE WITH CHEMICALS

METHODS OF ENHANCEMENT FINGERPRINT POWDERS BLACK (white surfaces) GRAY (dark surfaces) FLUORESCENT (multi-colored surfaces) MAGNETIC (leather or rough plastic) ADHERES TO PERSPIRATION and/or BODY OILS

METHODS OF ENHANCEMENT CHEMICALS IODINE FUMING NINHYDRIN - REACTS WITH PROTEINS PHYSICAL DEVELOPER - SILVER NITRATE BASED - USED WHEN OTHER METHODS UNSUCCESSFUL

METHODS OF ENHANCEMENT CHEMICALS SUPER GLUE FUMING - CYANOACRYLATE ESTER

NON-POROUS SURFACES CREATE FUMES WITH HEAT PORTABLE WAND AVAILABLE METHODS OF ENHANCEMENT FLUORESENCE PERSPIRATION CONTAINS COMPONENTS THAT

FLUORESCE WHEN ILLUMINATED WITH LASER LIGHT HIGHLY SENSITIVE ALTERNATE LIGHT SOURCE

QUARTZ HALOGEN ZENON ARC INDIUM ARC

DOES NOT INTERFERE WITH DNA TESTING PRESERVATION AND COMPARISON OF FINGERPRINTS PRESERVATION OF ENHANCED PRINTS PHOTOGRAPHY

1:1 SCALE LIFTING TAPE HINGED LIFTER

PRESERVATION OF ENHANCED PRINTS DIGITAL IMAGING

SCANNER DIGITAL CAMERA VIDEO CAMERA ENHANCE WITH FILTERS, CONTRAST OR BRIGHTNESS REMOVE BACKGROUND COLORS SCALING / RESIZING TOOLS SIDE-BY-SIDE COMPARISON

AFIS Automated Fingerprint Identification System AFIS Automatic Scanning Devices Convert Fingerprint Image into Digital Minutiae

RIDGE ENDINGS BIFURCATIONS AFIS Types of Databases Arrest Prints (KNOWNS) Forensic Prints (CRIME SCENE) AFIS SEARCH ALGORITHM

DETERMINES DEGREE OF CORRELATION BETWEEN THE QUESTIONED AND KNOWN PRINTS AFIS THOUSANDS OF COMPARISONS PER SECOND

ALL SELECTED PRINTS VERIFIED BY TRAINED EXAMINER STANDARDS ENABLE AGENCIES TO EASILY EXCHANGE DATA FINGERPRINT EXAMINER

4 YEAR DEGREE 2+ YEARS TRAINING CERTIFICATION PROGRAM Written Test Proficiency Test Continuing Education International

(IAI) Association for Identification

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