The Impact of World War I American soldiers

The Impact of World War I American soldiers

The Impact of World War I American soldiers wear gas masks at a frontline trench, circa 19171918. Source: Imperial War Museum UNITED STATES HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL MUSEUM ISOLATION OR INTERVENTION? A CASE STUDY ON THE LEND LEASE ACT 2 Neutrality Act of 1935

On August 31, 1935, Congress passed the first in a series of laws designed to prevent the United States from being embroiled in a foreign war. The 1935 Neutrality Act prohibited the export of arms, ammunition, and implements of war from the United States to foreign nations at war and required US arms manufacturers to apply for an export license. Senator Gerald Nye of Nebraska argued that the Neutrality Actl of 1935 would help the United States stay out of future wars. Source: Library of Congress UNITED STATES HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL MUSEUM ISOLATION OR INTERVENTION? A CASE STUDY ON THE LEND LEASE ACT

3 January 1937 Public Opinion Poll 30% No Do you think it was a mistake for the United States to enter World War I? Source: Gallup 70% Yes UNITED STATES HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL MUSEUM

ISOLATION OR INTERVENTION? A CASE STUDY ON THE LEND LEASE ACT 4 19371938 Recession A migrant family walks down a road, pulling its belongings in carts and wagons, in Pittsburg County, Oklahoma, in June 1938. Source: Library of Congress UNITED STATES HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL MUSEUM

ISOLATION OR INTERVENTION? A CASE STUDY ON THE LEND LEASE ACT 5 November 1938: Kristallnacht (The Night of Broken Glass) Germans pass by the broken shop window of a Jewish-owned business that was destroyed during the Night of Broken Glass. November 10, 1938. Source: National Archives and Records Administration UNITED STATES HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL MUSEUM

ISOLATION OR INTERVENTION? A CASE STUDY ON THE LEND LEASE ACT 6 The Beginning of World War II German soldiers parade through Warsaw a month after Germany invaded Poland on September 1, 1939. October 5, 1939. Source: US Holocaust Memorial Museum UNITED STATES HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL MUSEUM

ISOLATION OR INTERVENTION? A CASE STUDY ON THE LEND LEASE ACT 7 Neutrality Act of 1939 The Neutrality Act of 1939 lifted the arms embargo and put all trade with belligerent nations (Great Britain, France) under the terms of cash-and-carry. The ban on loans remained in effect, and American ships were barred from transporting goods to belligerent ports. Source: New York Times, July 14, 1939

UNITED STATES HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL MUSEUM ISOLATION OR INTERVENTION? A CASE STUDY ON THE LEND LEASE ACT 8 December 1940September 1941: US Public Opinion about Going to War Source: Gallup UNITED STATES HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL MUSEUM ISOLATION OR INTERVENTION? A CASE STUDY ON THE LEND LEASE ACT 9

Non-Interventionist Groups Charles Lindbergh speaks at an America First rally in Fort Wayne, Indiana, on October 5, 1941. Source: Library of Congress UNITED STATES HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL MUSEUM ISOLATION OR INTERVENTION? A CASE STUDY ON THE LEND LEASE ACT 10 Interventionist Groups

A poster created by the Committee to Defend America By Aiding the Allies on June 10, 1940. Source: US Holocaust Memorial Museum UNITED STATES HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL MUSEUM ISOLATION OR INTERVENTION? A CASE STUDY ON THE LEND LEASE ACT 11 A Peacetime Military Draft In September 1940, Congress approved the Selective Training and Service Act of 1940. The act, which instituted the first

peacetime military draft in US history, required men between the ages of 21 and 36 to register for the draft. Men stand in line to register for the draft in Seattle on October 16, 1940. Source: Museum of History and Industry, Seattle UNITED STATES HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL MUSEUM ISOLATION OR INTERVENTION? A CASE STUDY ON THE LEND LEASE ACT 12 December 29, 1940: President Roosevelt's Fireside Chat In December 1940, Great Britains prime minister, Winston Churchill, informed

President Roosevelt that soon Britain would run out of cash to pay for transporting necessary war supplies. In response, Roosevelt told Americans during a fireside chat radio address on December 29 that the United States must be the great arsenal of democracy, and needed to manufacture planes, ships, guns, and ammunition for Great Britain. President Franklin D. Roosevelt delivers Fireside Chat Number 18 on September 11, 1941. Source: FDR Presidential Library and Museum UNITED STATES HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL MUSEUM ISOLATION OR INTERVENTION? A CASE STUDY ON THE LEND LEASE ACT

13 Document Analysis What group or individual did you read about? Summarize this persons or groups stance on the bill. What evidence (if any) does your individual or group provide to support their/its argument? What external factors might have shaped this perspective? Consider political,

social, and economic conditions. UNITED STATES HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL MUSEUM ISOLATION OR INTERVENTION? A CASE STUDY ON THE LEND LEASE ACT 14 Class Discussion How would you characterize public opinion in America regarding the lead-up to and start

of World War II from 19391941? As Americans engaged in debates over US involvement, what was happening in Europe? What factors influenced Americans attitudes and opinions on these issues? Were there particular arguments that you found convincing? Why? Was there additional information you would need to accurately assess the validity of these arguments? UNITED STATES HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL MUSEUM ISOLATION OR INTERVENTION? A CASE STUDY ON THE LEND LEASE ACT 15 Class Discussion

What is the role of informed public debate about policy decisions in a democracy? What questions does this case study raise about America's role in the world? UNITED STATES HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL MUSEUM ISOLATION OR INTERVENTION? A CASE STUDY ON THE LEND LEASE ACT 16 Lend-Lease Act Passed The Lend-Lease Act passed both houses of Congress by wide margins

on March 11, 1941. By the end of the war, the United States had transferred a total of $50 billion to 38 Allied countries and had received goods valued at about $8 billion. Source: Idaho Evening Times, March 11, 1941 UNITED STATES HOLOCAUST MEMORIAL MUSEUM ISOLATION OR INTERVENTION? A CASE STUDY ON THE LEND LEASE ACT 17 The Museum wishes to acknowledge and thank the following donors

to the Americans and the Holocaust Initiative: Jeannie & Jonathan Lavine The BildnersJoan & Allen zl, Elisa Spungen & Rob, Nancy & Jim Jane and Daniel Och Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld LLP Arnold & Porter Kaye Scholer LLP Ruth Miriam Bernstein Joyce and Irving Goldman Family Foundation In Memory of Simon Konover Philip and Cheryl Milstein Family Benjamin and Seema Pulier Charitable Foundation David and Fela Shapell Family Foundation Laurie and Sy Sternberg

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