Chapter 3 Contingency Approaches to Leadership 2015 Cengage

Chapter 3 Contingency Approaches to Leadership 2015 Cengage

Chapter 3 Contingency Approaches to Leadership 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 6e Learning Objectives Understand how leadership is often contingent on people and situations

Apply Hersey and Blanchards situational theory of leader style to the level of follower readiness Apply Fiedlers contingency model to key relationships among leader style, situational favorability, and group task performance 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 2 Learning Objectives

Explain the path-goal theory of leadership Use the Vroom-Jago model to identify the correct amount of follower participation in specific decision situations Know how to use the power of situational variables to substitute for or neutralize the need for leadership 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 3

Contingency and Contingency Approaches Contingency Theory meaning one thing depends on other things Contingency approaches Seek to delineate the characteristics of situations and followers and examine the leadership styles that can be used effectively 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 4

Exhibit 3.1 - Comparing the Universalistic and Contingency Approaches to Leadership 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 5 Exhibit 3.2 - Meta-Categories of Leader Behavior and Four Leader Styles

Source: Based on Gary Yukl, Angela Gordon, and Tom Taber, A Hierarchical Taxonomy of Leadership Behavior: Integrating a Half Century of Behavior Research, Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies 9, no. 1 (2002), pp. 1532. 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 6 Hersey and Blanchards Situational Theory - Leadership Style Directing style Reflects a high concern for tasks and a low concern for people and relationships

Coaching style Based on a high concern for both relationships and tasks Supporting style Characterized by high relationship and low task behavior Entrusting style Reflects a low concern for both tasks and relationships 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 7 Exhibit 3.3 - The Situational

Model of Leadership Source: Based on Gary Yukl, Angela Gordon and Tom Taber, A Hierarchial Taxonomy of Leadership Behavior: Integrating a Half Century of Behavior Research, Journal of leadership and Organizational Studies 9, no 1 (2002), pp. 1532; and Paul Hersey, Kenneth Blanchard and Dewey Johnson, Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing Human Resources, 7th Ed (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996). 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 8 Situation Leader-member relations

Group atmosphere and members attitudes toward and acceptance of the leader Task structure Extent to which tasks performed by the group are defined, involve specific procedures, and have clear, explicit goals Position power Extent to which the leader has formal authority over subordinates 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

9 Exhibit 3.4 - Fiedlers Classification: How Leader Style Fits the Situation Source: Based on Fred E. Fiedler, The Effects of Leadership Training and Experience: A Contingency Model Interpretation, Administrative Science Quarterly 17 (1972), p. 455 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 10

Exhibit 3.5 - Leader Roles in the Path-Goal Model Reprinted from Organizational Dynamics, 13 (Winter 1985), Bernard M. Bass, Leadership: Good, Better, Best, pp. 2640, Copyright 1985, with permission from Elsevier. 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 11 Leader Behavior Supportive leadership

Shows concern for subordinates well-being and personal needs Leadership behavior is open, friendly, and approachable, and the leader creates a team climate and treats subordinates as equals Directive leadership Tells subordinates exactly what they are supposed to do Leader behavior includes planning, making schedules, setting performance goals and behavior standards, and stressing adherence to rules and regulations 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

12 Leader Behavior Participative leadership Consults with subordinates about decisions Leader behavior includes asking for opinions and suggestions, encouraging participation in decision making, and meeting with subordinates in their workplaces Achievement-oriented leadership

Sets clear and challenging goals for subordinates Leader behavior stresses high-quality performance and improvement over current performance 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 13 Exhibit 3.6 - Path-Goal Situations and Preferred Leader Behaviors 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

14 Exhibit 3.7 - Five Leader Decision Styles 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 15 Diagnostic Questions Decision significance How significant is this decision for the project or organization?

Importance of commitment How important is subordinate commitment to carrying out the decision? Leader expertise What is the level of the leaders expertise in relation to the problem? Likelihood of commitment If the leader were to make the decision alone, would subordinates have high or low commitment to the decision? 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 16

Diagnostic Questions Group support for goals What is the degree of subordinate support for the teams or organizations objectives at stake in this decision? Goal expertise What is the level of group members knowledge and expertise in relation to the problem? Team competence How skilled and committed are group members to working together as a team to solve problems? 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part.

17 Substitutes for Leadership Substitute Situational variable that makes leadership unnecessary or redundant Neutralizer Situational characteristic that counteracts the leadership style and prevents the leader from displaying certain behaviors

2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 18 Exhibit 3.10 - Substitutes and Neutralizers for Leadership 2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be scanned, copied or duplicated, or posted to a publicly accessible website, in whole or in part. 19

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