Vertebrates Cartilagenous Bony Hagfish, Fish Fish Amphibians Lampreys

Vertebrates Cartilagenous Bony Hagfish, Fish Fish Amphibians Lampreys

Vertebrates Cartilagenous Bony Hagfish, Fish Fish Amphibians Lampreys Reptiles Birds Mammals Hair

Mammary Glands Amniotic Egg Endothermy Four Limbs Terrestrial Phase Bony Skeleton Swim Bladder Skull Backbone Paired Fins Jaws Mammals

Hair, mammary glands Most advanced nervous system Learning important to survival Warm blooded Humans are mammals Humans are primate mammals Class Mammalia Order Primates Prosimians (e.g. lemurs) Tarsiers Anthropoids (e.g. monkeys, hominoids)

Lemur Tarsier Macaque Primates : Humble Beginning Rabbit Primates Shrew

Shrew-like Ancestor Major Primate Groups Family Hominidae Tarsiiformes Lemurs Old World Monkeys New World

Monkeys Orangutan Gibbons Chimp Human Gorilla Homininae : African Great Apes and Humans

Hominidea : Great Apes and Humans Hominoidea : Apes and Humans What Features Are Associated With Primate Evolution? I. Sensory Adaptations Protected, forward looking eyes with stereoscopic vision Improved sight : more detail even in low light Reduction of olfactory structures What Features Are Associated With Primate Evolution? II. Adaptations for tree-climbing and insectivory

Freely moving limbs and digits Long mobile digits capable of grasping Retention of tail as organ of balance Evolution of upright body posture and extensive head rotation Increased body size Evolution of nervous system to give precise and rapid control of movement

Major Primate Groups Family Hominidae Tarsiiformes Lemurs Old World Monkeys New World Monkeys Orangutan

Gibbons Chimp Human Gorilla 5 mya 6 mya 12 mya 25 mya 38 mya

Estimated Divergence Times Hasegawa et al. 1987 What Traits Do Humans and Apes Share? Larger Brain Absence of a tail More erect posture Greater flexibility of hips, ankles, wrist, thumb DNA sequence similarity

Gorilla Chimpanzee Human Horai et al (1995) Proc. Nat Acad Sci. 92:532-536. Mito DNA (complete sequences) Kim and Takenaka (1996) A. J. Phys. Anth. 100:301-309 Y-chromosome DNA Ruvolo (1997) Mol Biol Evol 10:1115-1135. Examined 14 different DNA data sets Satta et al (2000) Mol. Phyl. Evol 14:259-275. Autosomal DNA (45 genes, 47,000 bp of DNA) Paabo (2003) Nature 421:409-412. Review of human and chimp/ape genomes. Common Ancestor of Chimp/Human

Knuckle-walker? Broad-fruit based diet May have hunted May have used tools May have had complex social relationships: (e.g.warfare, cannabalism, sharing, teaching, compassion) Our Understanding of Human Evolution is Primarily Based on Fossils

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