Policy forum The work of fathering: balancing jobs
Policy forum The work of fathering: balancing jobs and kids Speakers: Professor Lyndall Strazdins Dr Graeme Russell Dr Tim Reddel Facilitator: Dr Brian Babington Long hours and longings Childrens views of fathers jobs THE WORK OF FATHERING FAMILIES AUSTRALIA FORUM Strazdins, Baxter and Li Journal of Marriage and Family, 2017 Fathers in Australia
90% employed (of these 92% full-time) Men 2X time work, women 2X time childcare (59 vs 22 minutes a day). 16% all men (15% women) say work and family never or rarely in balance 3 Jobless fathers Reasons for not working, by age of youngest child, couple families with children aged 0-11
years, 2006-10, LSAC Source: Baxter 2013 Families working our work, AIFS Family trends series 4 Time is a problem for fathers 25% Fathers often work weekends 56% Miss out on family events 20% Say family time pressured and less fun (because of their jobs) LSAC data, 2014
5 a temporal conscience Daly 1996 Fathers describe and understand their relationships in terms of time, it is the currency through which they make decisions about work and care, and this generation has developed a temporal conscience 6 What do children make of fathers work? They are discerning View fathers employment as
valuable and normative Adapt and accommodate But view some time as different (rushing, weekends) Does fathers work time shape childrens views, relationships and experience? Data Data Collection B Cohort Age N K Cohort Age N Data Release Retention
Wave 1 Wave 2 Wave Wave Wave 3 4 5 Wave 6 Wave 7
Wave 8 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 2016 2018
0-1 2-3 4-5 6-7 8-9 10-11 12-13 14-15 5107
4606 4386 4242 4085 4-5 6-7 8-9 10-11 12-13
14-15 16-17 18-19 4983 4464 4331 4169 3956 2005
2007 2009 2011 2013 2015 2017 2019 - 90%
86% 83% 78% Note. Missing data imputed: N Wave 4 + 5 = 5711, Wave 5 2737. Fathers time Weekly hours % Work schedule % Work time intensity % Flexible hours % Work-family conflicts %
Part time <35 Hours 7.0 Full time 35-44 Hours 44.2 Long full time 45-54 Hours Very long full time >= 55 Hours Regular daytime shift, no weekends Regular daytime shift, including weekends Rotating, Irregular, Nights, Evenings Agree Or Strongly Agree
26.6 22.2 Neutral or disagree 62.3 Can change work hours Not easily change, needs approval Misses out on family events 60.3 Family time pressured from work 20
57.2 24.6 18.1 37.7 39.7 56 What fathers say Adjusted odds fathers work-family conflicts Misses family events Family time
pressured Fathers weekly work hours (35-44) Part time <35 0.7** 0.9 Long full time 45-54 1.3*** 1.3** Very long full time 55 + 1.9***
1.8** Regularly works weekends 1.2** 1.1 Nights evenings irregular rotating 2.0*** 1.1 Fathers work time high intensity 2.5***
3.6*** Fathers has some work time flexiblity 0.5*** 0.6*** Fathers work schedule (regular day) WORKS TOO MUCH ? ENJOY TIME WITH HIM? Do you think your dad works too much, too little, or about the right amount?
Too much About the right Do you enjoy spending time with your dad? Definitely true Mostly true amount , Too little WISH DIDNT WORK? Do you wish your dad did not have to work? Yes, wish very much Yes, wish a little bit Dont wish Mostly not true Definitely not true
ENOUGH TIME WITH HIM? Do you think the amount of time your dad spends with you is enough, too much or not enough? About right, little too much Not quite enough, not enough, nowhere near enough What children say Adjusted Odds Works too much Wishes didnt
work Enjoy time Enough time Fathers weekly work hours (35-44) Part time <35 0.7** 0.7# 0.8# 1.2
Long full time 45-54 1.4*** 1.0 1.2# 1.0 Very long full time 55 + 1.9*** 1.0 1.2*
1.0 0.9 Fathers work time high intensity 1.3*** 1.3* 1.0 0.7** Fathers has some work time flexiblity 0.9
0.7*** 1.0 1.2* Fathers work schedule (regular day) Long hours and longings Fathers work time investments - Generate work-care dilemmas for fathers - Are intrinsic to gendered outcomes in the labour market - And shape childrens
experience of being fathered Thank you Q Families Australia Q Jenny Baxter (AIFS), Jianghong Li (WZB) Q ARC Linkage LP100100106 Q ARC Future Fellowship FT110100686 [email protected] Increasing the visibility of work and fathering Graeme Russell Outline
A little personal history The benefits of fathering and work Observations and reflections A different framework? Parallel lives Experimental Psychology and Caregiving A little history Personal experiences: Inconsistent with prevailing assumptions and research Prompted my research interest, eg., Fathers: Incompetent or reluctant parents? Australian & New Zealand Journal of Sociology,
(1979) The Changing Role of Fathers? (1983): A study of shared caregiving families. (U of Q press) Continuing focus on: Research Policy and practice Changing workplaces Enabling individual men to actively engage in both fathering and work 1997 Fathering and Work: The benefits are obvious arent they?
Fathers and mothers Children Relationships (intimate and parenting) Gender equality in work and caring Workplaces and productivity The economy Community well-being Despite the benefits Work and fathering is often: Invisible in workplaces Absent in government policies, research And we continue to: Feel the need to justify fathers
Discover and rediscover: Fathering The new father Work and fathering dilemmas Problematic images and assumptions remain 1983 2016 Fatherhood Research Bulletin: The important contribution of fathers in child development The relation between fathers involvement in education and childrens achievement is not only positive, but just as strong as mothers involvement Fathers matter: . . . Including fathers in the picture. . . . Fatherhood research conference: Father involvement in young childrens lives benefits overall development and well-being
Inviting fathers into child and mental health Hegemonic masculinity vs. caring masculinity: are we seeing a shift in what it means to be a father? . . Complex interplay between expectations of a traditional, provider father and a new and involved father. Vanguard dads: . . . Fathers who take more leave than their workplace norm. Comment: also a shift towards essentialisation of fathers. Reflections on Innovative policies and practices Workplace Gender Equality Act (2012) Framing based on GE in work and caring = inclusive of men and caregiving Equilibrium Man Implementation a challenge Workplaces rarely adopt this approach to GE (eg., AFR Oct 24) Parental and paternity leave policies Positive changes over time
Creative initiatives, eg., shared care. The single most important factor for increasing the numbers of women in top management positions thus increasing corporate profits was stronger paternity leave policies. (Peterson Institute for International Economics, 2016) Reflections continued Innovative Government funded projects 1992: Sharing the Load (paid work, housework, child care) Public campaign Antenatal education resource material Inconsistent with mindsets and assumptions of service providers (FFF report) 1999: Workplace based programs Men and work Staying Connected Workplaces Increased focus on men and flexibility
Yet, fathering is still primarily invisible (Lateline!) And, the ideal worker model is rarely questioned What is needed? An integrative framework Public and workplace policies and practices framed by a set of principles/presumptions/assumptions: Both men and women have the potential to be competent caregivers and parents The majority of fathers and mothers have strong feelings towards their children Under most circumstances children actively seek to know, identify with and have acceptance from both their fathers and mothers, and benefit from fathers and mothers reciprocating in this relationship. Fathers and mothers have shared responsibility for work and caring For both men and women: balance between paid work, family involvement and intimacy in relationships has potential benefits for . . . . Both men and women have the potential to change Many working men want to be caregiving fathers Given the current situation
New energy is needed to give higher priority to: The work and fathering dilemmas and aspirations of men Enabling a better balance between work and fathering This requires . . . A specific focus on work and fathering Develop government policies based both on gender equality in work and caring, and on facilitating mens involvement in care Conduct ongoing research into the diversity of work and fathering needs and capabilities (and regularly report on the findings) Identify and dismantle the systemic barriers to fathers achieving balance between work and fathering Challenge and change common assumptions about fathers and work DCA study: 37% of young fathers have seriously considered leaving their current employer because of a lack of flexibility Consider: Are mens identities dominated by the ideal worker model? Or, is this a myth? Research shows that the highest performers are not those with a strong ideal worker identity.
Make fathering visible in workplaces Include fathering in organisational values and priorities Frame your organisations profile as an employer who values fathering. Affirm the role of fathers in policies and practices. Encourage effective role models at the top: assume that father-managers are committed to their parenting responsibilities. Redefine models of success Include work and fathering in organisational measures and indicators Regularly consult men on their diverse work and fathering needs across different life stages Conduct work impact analyses that focus on the needs of fathers, eg., to be actively involved with their children, to have quality intimate relationships. Include concerns about separation and parenting at a distance Make fathering visible in workplaces Support and inform fathers Provide opportunities for men to share work and fathering experiences.
Tap into the power of the TIMES diary. Include the development of skills to combine work and fathering Provide advice and information to fathers (eg., Im a Dad Bag) Adopt a different approach to parental and paternity leave Frame parental leave and flexibility policies that encourage and provide the opportunities for fathers to fully engage in family life, participate in caregiving and develop close relationships with children. Ensure managers actively encourage and enable fathers to use parental and paternity leave and work flexibly What might increase mens sense of entitlement to corporate support for caregiving? Focus on workplace redesign Assume that: we all have the capacity to change, and to create better and more productive workplaces
Adopt an innovative approach by Redesigning jobs, work and careers Creating a diversity of options to balance work and fathering. Involving working fathers in crafting new ways of working Outcomes from this process have been stunning Examples from male dominated mining and construction industries. Work redesign to facilitate flexibility and visible fathering I have only cooked for six and have only set the table for six Feels like you're sort of contributing more to family life, rather than just being the bread winner going to work each day. Hearing stories from older generations who have been in industry - broken marriages and disconnected from their kids. I don't want to just turn up to work 6 days a week and not be factored in with my family. Its massive my daughter is young and I am just that random guy who comes home every night. She sometimes doesnt want to go to me. On the weekend where I had Sat off on Sat and Sun she woke up and I was there both mornings - my daughter walks into room and says "daddy", she never did that before. Even on the flex day the look on her face when she came into the room and saw me.
The last flex day I took was the best day ever. My wife asks me now when is your next flex day and she books it in - she organises the whole day, and we do stuff we should be doing as a family. The work of fathering: DSS Supporting families 1 November 2017 DSS acknowledges the traditional owners of country throughout Australia, and their continuing connection to land, sea and community. We pay our respects to them and their cultures, and to elders both past and present. Supporting families and children, including fathers
37 Supporting dads DSS initiatives Supporting families and children, including fathers 38 Try Test and Learn New and innovative approaches to assist some of the most vulnerable in society into stable and sustainable employment. One of the three initial priority groups is young parents. The Minister will soon announce funding for new initiatives that will
trial approaches to help young parents Supporting families and children, including fathers 39 Paid Parental Leave Scheme Parental Leave Pay 18 weeks pay at the rate of the national minimum wage to eligible working mothers and other primary carers Can be transferred to eligible partners who take on the role of primary carer. Out of the 170,925 parents starting parental leave pay in 2016-17 17,693 were fathers who were transferred the entitlement. Dad and Partner Pay Two weeks pay at the rate of the national minimum wage to eligible working dads or partners
In 2016-17 a total of 83,600 fathers or partners received dad and partner pay Supporting families and children, including fathers 40 Family functioning framework The framework is being developed to identify: What families do to support childrens outcomes; The outcomes we want for children and the wider population, and how to get there; What creates and affects the behaviours of families which support those better outcomes; and The role of policy, governments and other institutions in supporting families to function well. Supporting families and children, including fathers
41 So what about the future of work? We know New technology is changing the face of work Demand for care services is likely to grow Adaptability is becoming more important The workers most likely to be disadvantaged are those in low-skilled jobs often jobs that are traditionally held by men. DSS must explore how we can best help Australians to have the resilience and flexibility to respond to the changing skill requirements and needs of the future. Supporting families and children, including fathers
42 Thank you DSS: Supporting families 43 Policy forum The work of fathering: balancing jobs and kids Speakers: Professor Lyndall Strazdins Dr Graeme Russell Dr Tim Reddel Facilitator: Dr Brian Babington
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