Music and Consciousness The astounding influence of music
Music and Consciousness The astounding influence of music on cognition Eleanore Park Alex Kawas Stephen Frost Matthias Havenaar Ties to ASCs Shift state, alter mindset Used to accompany, induce ASCs: Religion/shamanism/mysticism Drug use
Meditation Sleep What is Music? Distinguishing aspects Tonal Beat organization; psychoacoustics & rhythm Affect Birdsong?
Jackhammer? Country? Basic Structure Hierarchy Major and minor beats Essential + ornamental notes Defeasible principles of organization
Interaction between types and levels Auditory scene analysis: stream segregation Processing music Utilizes broad cognitive capacities Gestalt grouping: proximity, good continuation And specialized ones Differential processing
Analysis lateralization in of tonal space: pitches, intervals, chords, keys Affect in music Music theory There are degrees of tension and attraction within a melodyat any point 1 Rising pitch: increased tension Large interval shifts: more tension than
small shifts Attraction related to resolution during melodic progression Conscious and unconscious expectation; latter unrelated to memory 1. Jackendoff, p. 24 Why does music move us? Aesthetics: Admiring beauty, virtuosity
Memory: Nostalgic familiarity Entrainment: direct effect on rhythms within the body (heartbeat, brainwaves); visceral and motor rhythmicity Why does music move us?
Musical posture and gesture: ascription of affect and animatism Listening to dark music doesnt make us feel dark, but in the presence of a dark entity We have empathy or attunement with the affect Dancing: conversion to physical posture and gesture Framing: level to invest, or detach The Impact of Music on the Brain & Experience Neural Basis for Coupling Music to Emotion & Attention PET studies showed increased CBF in the ventral striatum, midbrain, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex, and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (Limb, 2006)
EEG studies have shown a significant power increase in the low-alpha band range in bilateral frontal networks, indicating increased neuronal synchronization and attention (Thaut, 2005). Music acts on waking arousal control systems based on norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin (Panksepp, 1986). Music elicits responses similar to sex and drug intake
Music can lead to musical chills and euphoric experience Music activates reward related brain areas These areas are similar to reward / emotion and limbic arousal processes similar to thoses activated by drug intake and sex. NAc, Insula, OFC, ACC (Blood, 2001) Increased DA secretion due to listening to music. Music is your XTC! Remember Volkow? Is music addictive? ? Music and Brain Lateralization
Right hemisphere is involved in processing of melody (prosody) Left hemisphere is involved in processing rhythm and musical analysis. Also activates frontal motor areas Is the left hemisphere involved in making you want to shake your body? Is music capable of inducing an altered state? Is used for induction of hypnosis/ trancelike states
Music can drive listeners into states of patriotic fervor or religious frenzy Is there a reason why we sing in church? Does music induce religious experiences? What is music therapy? Systematic intervention process that uses music experiences to achieve therapeutic goals
Music as an ASC: changes in emotion, motivation, motor functions to help a variety of patient populations Passive and active interactions with music: Song writing, listening to music, discussion of song lyrics, performing, etc. No previous experience with music or music talent is necessary Music Therapy patient populations
Goals: Obtain symptom control, reduce clinical disability, improve quality of life Vary with each patients condition: Geriatric care Patients undergoing cardiac surgery Parkinsons disease Rehabilitation Alzheimer's- silent brain Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Tourettes Active music therapy Voice exercises, rhythmic and free body movements
Combining motor and emotional responses Rhythmic and melodic components Combining stimulation of different sensory pathways Active MT and Parkinsons Disease Bradykinesia,hypokinesia Postural and gait abnormalities
External rhythmic cues acting as a timekeeper Variable improvements Motor improvements as a function of emotion? DA mesolimbic projections to ventro-striatum intraccumbens Integration of basal-ganglia loop and cortical regions Limbic systems + motor systems
Music therapy and effects on consciousness Improvements seem to be residual ASCs generally relative Individual differences in normal state of consciousness (Pacchetti et al.)
Patients achieve different mental state and physical state Body and mind connection (Brain vs. Mind) Is music adaptive? What purpose might music serve on an individual and social level? Where Did Music Come From? Auditory Cheesecake hypothesis
Sexual Selection hypothesis Geoffrey Miller, Evolution of human music through sexual selection (2000) Social Bonding hypothesis Steven Pinker, How the Mind Works (1997) Robin Dunbar, Language, Music and Laughter in Evolutionary Perspective (2004) Coalition Signaling hypothesis Hagen & Bryant, Music and dance as a
coalition signaling system (2003) Auditory Cheesecake Cheesecake tastes good by taking advantage of existing structures The desire for cheesecake is an emergent phenomena of existing processes Music, too! Sexual Selection Darwin: Music as courtship
display Miller: Musical ability as indicator of fitness Jimi Hendrix Social Bonding Sexual selection is insufficient Monkey grooming Grooming
Human grooming Dunbars number: 150 humans Language ceiling: 50 monkeys allows larger grooming size Ramping up from 50 to 150 Music, precursor to language Coalition Signaling
Sexual selection, social bonding insufficient, but important Music commonly performed in groups during war, politics with other groups Apes coordinate songs to advertise territory, pair bonds May also signal group identity Music signals other groups of cohesion We can kick your butt.
Altered State Induction What about altered states? Mob behavior as altered state: Personal identity frame drop induces altered state Are musical groups mobs? Is musics role in the induction of altered states evolutionarily adaptive? Open question
References Blood AJ, Zatorre RJ. Intensely pleasurable responses to music correlate with activity in brain regions implicated in reward and emotion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (2001). Esch T, Guarna M, Bianchi E, Zhu W, Stefano GB. Commonalities in the central nervous system's involvement with complementary medical therapies: limbic morphinergic processes. Medical science monitor: International medical journal of experimental and clinical research (2004). Gold C, Rolvsjord R, Aaro LE, Aarre T, Tjemsland L, Stige B. Resource-oriented music therapy for psychiatric patients with low therapy motivation: protocol for a randomised controlled trial [NCT00137189]. BMC psychiatry (2005). Hatem TP, Lira PI, Mattos SS. The therapeutic effects of music in children following cardiac surgery. Jornal de pediatria (2006). Jackendoff R, Lerdahl F. The capacity for music: What is it, and what's special about it? Cognition (2005). References Jaynes J. Of poetry and music. The origin of consciousness in
the breakdown of the bicameral mind (2000, 1976). Myskja A. Can music therapy for patients with neurological disorders? Tidsskrift for den Norske laegeforening (2004). Pacchetti C, Mancini F, Aglieri R, Fundaro C, Martignoni E, Nappi G. Active music therapy in Parkinson's disease: an integrative method for motor and emotional rehabilitation. Psychosomatic medicine. (2000) Pinker S. How the mind works (1997). Miller G. Evolution of human music through sexual selection. The origins of music (2000). Dunbar R. Language, music and laughter in evolutionary perspective. Evolution of communication systems: A comparative approach (2004). Hagen & Bryant. Music and dance as a coalition signaling system Human nature (2003).
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