Todays topic Broadcast and multicast Send/receive broadcast and

 Todays topic  Broadcast and multicast  Send/receive broadcast and

Todays topic Broadcast and multicast Send/receive broadcast and multicast packets Types of IP addresses Unicast Identify one host Anycast Identify one host in a set of hosts Broadcast

Identify all hosts Multicast Identify a set of hosts Broadcasting and Multicasting An area that is not well standardized systems from different vendors may behave differently when dealing with broadcast and multicast packets. May not work on WAN (some equipment along the path may not support broadcasting/multicasting).

Usually work on LAN (e.g. Ethernet) no router in between. Broadcasting IP broadcast address: IP address can logically be viewed as three components: , e.g. When the hostid contains all one bits 111111111 111, it is a broadcast address, let us denote the all one bits as 1. two kinds of broadcast addresses: Subnet-directed broadcast address:

Limited broadcast address < -1, -1> or 255.255.255.255, broadcast to all machines in the local network. Router typically does not forward subnet-directed broadcast address Router should not forward limited broadcast address Broadcasting Ethernet broadcast address: Ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff All Ethernet cards recognize this address What happens when a broadcast packet is sent

in a LAN? The packet will go up all the way to the IP layer on ALL machines!! Implication? Ethernet switches must support broadcast Many applications are built on top of it. ARP, BOOTP ATM LAN must emulate this capability. Sending a broadcast message:

Set the SO_BROADCAST option. Set destination ip address to 255.255.255.255 Different system may behavior differently. See example1.c Receiving a broadcast message: Nothing extra Be very careful when using broadcast, you might affect other people on the same

network without knowing it. Multicasting (send to many): In between unicast (send to one) and broadcast (send to all). IP Multicast address 1110 xxxx.xxxxxxxx.xxxxxxxx.xxxxxxxx (224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255) These addresses are associated with a group of interfaces. A host must explicitly join and leave a group. Ethernet multicast address:

1110 xxxx.x xxxxxxx.xxxxxxxx.xxxxxxxx ------------------------------- 23bits 01. 00. 5e. 0 xxxxxxx.xxxxxxxx.xxxxxxxx Imperfect filtering Some special multicast addresses: 224.0.0.1 -- all hosts group 224.0.0.2 all routers group 224.0.0.0 224.0.0.255 are reserved.

Sending multicast messages: Use sendto, just treat a multicast address as a regular IP address. Can control the number of hops for multicast packets by setting IP_MULTICAST_TTL Can avoid loopback by turning off IP_MULTICAST_LOOP. See example2.c Receiving multicast message: After binding a socket to a port, the socket must join the group (setsockopt,IP_ADD_MEMBERSHIP).

The value is of type struct ip_mreq (netinet/in.h) Struct ip_mreq { struct in_addr imr_multiaddr; struct in_addr imr_interface; } See example3.c To stop receiving multicast message setsockopt IP_DROP_MEMBERSHIP. Multicast over the Internet: Not available in the general Internet the IP

multicast feature tuned off. Some experimental systems: Mbone Internet2 -- FSU is on Internet2

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