3 Points for todays lecture Definition what is creativity? Scientific approaches to creativity Cox; Guilford; Torrance; Mednick; Weisberg; Finke; Sternberg Practical approaches De Bono; Osborne Definition Reed: Creating a novel and useful
product or situation. Sternberg & Ben-Zeev (2001): Creativity is the ability to produce work that is novel (original and unexpected), high in quality, and appropriate (useful and meets the task constraints of tasks). Scientific Approaches to Creativity Guilford (1950) reported that on 2/10ths of 1% of entries in Psychological Abstracts up to 1950 were studies of creativity.
Sternberg & Ben-Zeev (2001) reported that about 5/10ths of 1% of entries in Psychological Abstracts for the years 1975-1994 were studies of creativity. 1.5% of entries for that period (3 times as many) were studies of reading. Scientific Approaches to Creativity Psychodynamic approach: Freud: creativity arises from the tension between conscious reality and unconscious
drives. Creative work provides an acceptable way to express unconscious wishes publicly. These wishes refer to things like power, wealth, fame, love Psychodynamic Approach Kris (1952) adaptive regression: intrusion of unmodulated thoughts into consciousness elaboration: reworking of those thoughts into
reality-oriented thoughts This approach used case studies only, so has not been central in scientific study of creativity Psychometric Approach - Cox Cox (1926) estimated IQ for 301 eminent people who lived between 1450 and 1850. (Average ratings) found correlation between IQ and rank order of eminence = .16. Simonton (1975): r = 0. Cox: Highest persistence + OK intelligence >
Highest intelligence + OK persistence Psychometric Approach - Guilford Guilford (1950): Its difficult to study only eminent people such as Einstein or Michelangelo, because there are so few of them. Guilford suggested studying creativity in ordinary people using tasks like the Unusual Uses Test (e.g., think of as many uses as possible for a brick).
Psychometric Approach - Torrance Torrance (1974) Tests of Creative Thinking. simple tasks requiring divergent thinking and problem-solving scored for fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration e.g., Asking Questions, Circles, Product Improvement, Unusual Uses Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking
Asking questions write out all questions you can think of based on a drawing of a scene. Circles expand empty circles into different drawings and give the drawings titles. Unusual uses list interesting and unusual uses of a cardboard box. Product Improvement ways to change a toy monkey to make it more fun Psychometric Approach - Mednick
Mednick Remote Associates Test Creative thinking involves forming new relations among elements, such that relations are useful or match a standard. Example test items: Cake Blue Cottage _____? Surprise Line Birthday _____?
Task: find word that goes with all three in a line. Quick & objective test but is it a good theory? Psychometric Approaches Sternberg Sternberg & Ben-Zeev on IQ and creativity: Creative people tend to have IQs > 120. Above 120, IQ does not seem to matter Role of IQ varies depending upon which aspect of intelligence is involved, as well as field of creativity (e.g., art & music vs.
science & math). Research on Creativity Cognitive Approaches Goal is to understand mental representations underlying creativity and process that operate on those representations. Weisberg (1999) products of creative processes are remarkable,
not the processes themselves. Cognitive Approach Weisberg & Alba Weisberg & Alba (1981) Asked subjects to solve the nine-dot problem: Weisberg & Alba (1981) Solution of the problem depends upon going outside the box. But people given that insight still had
trouble solving this problem. Weisberg: Thus, extraordinary insight is not the explanation. Solver goes through a set of ordinary cognitive processes; insight doesnt help. What might those processes be? Finkes Geneplore model: There are two main processes in creativity generation and exploration. Generation create pre-inventive structures
Exploration use those structures to produce creative ideas. Finkes Geneplore Model Person creates mental representations of objects that emphasize certain qualities. (Generative) Then, person uses these repns. to create new ideas or objects. (Exploratory) Because this is a cognitive theory, it emphasizes processes like retrieval,
association, analogy, transformation, & categorical reduction. Confluence Approaches Csikszentmihalyi (1988, 1996) creativity requires interaction of individual, domain, and field Domain stores information, problems Individual guided to a problem by a domain, draws on information in that domain, transforms and extends it through cognition, personality,
and motivation Field people who control or influence domain evaluate and select new ideas (e.g., critics). Confluence Approaches Sternberg & Lubart (1995) Investment Theory Creative people buy low and sell high in the world of ideas: Buying low pursuing ideas that are unknown or unfashionable.
Selling high convincing people the idea is great. Sternberg & Lubarts Investment Theory Requires confluence of six resources: knowledge intellect thinking style personality, motivation
and environment. Sternberg & Lubarts Investment Theory Knowledge To know domain without being bound by that knowledge Intellect be synthetic, analytic, practical Thinking preference for thinking in new ways Personality persistence, willingness to take sensible risks, tolerance for ambiguity, SE Motivation Intrinsic, task-focused; you
must love what you are doing; dont focus on rewards Environment supportive; providing a forum Practical Approaches Primary concern is developing creativity Secondary concern is understanding creativity No concern with testing ideas empirically Does the commercial success of some practical approaches damage the scientific
study of creativity, as Sternberg & BenZeev claim? Practical Approaches Edward De Bono Lateral Thinking taking a broad view, with multiple viewpoints PMI plus, minus, interesting po as in hypothesis, suppose, possible, poetry hats data, intuition, criticism, generation
Practical Approaches Osborn (1953) Brainstorming Ad-man developed Brainstorming to encourage people to open up. Recommended non-judgmental atmosphere where all ideas would be considered. Wheres the filter? Do you reject an idea before offering it publicly? Or offer it publicly perhaps to be rejected by group? He argued that critical approach is
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