Sensory Physiology Naval Safety Center We train and

Sensory Physiology Naval Safety Center We train and

Sensory Physiology Naval Safety Center We train and motivate Sailors and Marines to prevent mishaps and save lives FY00-07 = 18 Spatial Disorientation Episodes involved in a CAFM:

- 10 HELO: - 3 CH-46E - 2 SH-60B - 2 CH-53E - 1 UH-1N - 7 JET:

PROP 6% JET 39%

HELO 55% - 4 F/A-18C - 2 F/A-18D - 1 AV-8B

- 1 PROP: - 1 E-2C FY00-07 Spatial Disorientation When will SD most likely strike? Degraded visual environment

Loss of reliable visual references High cockpit workload Poor mission planning / briefing Lack experience (currency vs. proficiency) Fatigue Spatial Disorientation

Prevention SCANSCANSCAN Instrument scan NVG scan Unaided scan Solid Mission planning

Attention to environmental changes Proper rest Spatial Disorientation Recovery Re-establish visual/focal dominance (instrument cross-check)

Make instruments read right Straight-and-level flight Notify other crewmember or flight members (if applicable) The Visual System

Day Vision vs. Night Vision Day Vision (Photopic) Cone cells Night Vision (Scotopic) Adaptation 20-30 min. Rod cells

Night blind spot Mesopic Vision Cone and Rod Adaptation ~5-10 min. Focal vs. Ambient Vision

Ambient Vision Focal Vision

What- Object recognition Conscious Detail Distance & depth perception

Where- Object location

Subconscious Peripheral Poor detail Motion & Attitude Focal vs. Ambient Vision Focal Vision

VS. Ambient Vision Spatial Discrimination Focal vision Monocular Learned

Binocular Inherent Depth Distance Stereopsis (375ft)

Size Reference Illusions Size Reference Illusions Size Reference Illusions Size Reference Illusions

False Horizons Wire Illusion Mishaps 1. All aircraft impacted left wing down 2. All pilots reported to detect wires rising 3. All pilots compelled to push the nose over and dive vice

pulling back and climbing. In 1998, EA-6B wire strike incident occurred in Northern Italy. In 1998, F/A-18 transiting through a CONUS low level navigation route struck a set of power lines. In 2003, F/A-18 stuck a power line over the Tennessee River Valley. In 2005, TH-57C severed three power lines located on Philpott

Lake in the vicinity of Martinsville, Virginia during a training flight. Featureless Terrain Can you use optical flow to judge? Is cockpit workload increased?

KC-130 Struck Berm KC-130 lands short to runway Up sloping unimproved surface that the aviator was unfamiliar No formal brief concerning the runway Pilot flew low flat glideslope

Aircraft struck berm prior to runway waved off and conducted gear up landing Black Hole Illusion Runway Illusions High

Low Runway Illusions High or Low? Runway Illusions

150 AGL 150 AGL Too High or Too Low? Terrain Masking

Terrain Masking Terrain Masking T-39 Class A Mishap

CFIT Jan 10 2006 VT-86 NAS Pensacola TN 4 Crew

Low level flight Possible Illusion Vestibular System Vestibular Illusions

The Leans Coriolis Cross-coupling

Nystagmus False Pitch Illusions G-Excess Illusion

F-18 Spatial D Dec 19 2006 VFA-131

CAS on NVG Night Overcast layer above cultural lighting in distance Pilot selected full left rudder trim to aid with target acquisition and forgot to re-center trim Become accustom to unbalanced flight Completed strafing run and pulled off target and verified

positive rate of climb Eyes came back inside cockpit. Scanned instruments and noticed 45 degree pitch angle that felt nose high HUD indicated altitude decreasing Cultural lighting looked like the stars and overcast layer looked like the ground

False Pitch Illusion Questions? LT Welsh

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