Bullying Prevention and Intervention Training in DC Educational
Bullying Prevention and Intervention Training in DC Educational Institutions Prepared for the D.C. Office of Human Rights by Deborah Temkin, Ph.D. and Susannah Horton, Child Trends Training overview 4 sessions Intervention
The Youth Bullying Prevention Act Scenarios and best practices Prevention What is school climate? - and two of the eight key elements of a positive school climate The eight key elements continued, resources and conclusion Session 1 Bullying legislation 3
Bullying prevention in the District of Columbia 4 Youth Bullying Prevention Act of 2012 (YBPA) Signed into law on June 22, 2012 All D.C. youthserving agencies
must have a policy 5 Two meanings of the YBPA Letter of the Law Intervention 9 Requirements 6
Spirit of the Law Prevention 8 Elements Requirements of the Youth Bullying Prevention Act of 2012 7
All youth-serving agencies are required to have a bullying prevention policy that includes: Definition Consequences and flexibility Reporting
Investigation Appeals Most DC schools have a compliant policy We cover the key elements here to ensure you know your policy 8 Find your policy:
9 Definition Severe, pervasive, or persistent act or conduct, whether physical, electronic, or verbal 24 characteristics bullying may be based on: actual or perceived race sex disability source of income sexual orientation
etc. Clauses re predicted outcome: fear of physical harm, detriment to physical or mental health, interference with academic performance or ability to participate in or benefit from services, activities, or privileges provided by a school, etc. 10 Key points: Bullying based on characteristics
11 Aggressor and victim have different characteristics doesnt mean bullying was based on that characteristic.
Actual or perceived Friends characteristics Aggressor and victim can have the same characteristic Does not have to be based on a characteristic Consequences and flexibility Designed to correct, prevent, and protect Must be flexible
Incidents are unique, as are appropriate consequences. Nature Developmental age History of problem behavior 12 Reporting Procedure for reporting bullying and retaliation Policy must include language regarding retaliation
Anonymity No formal response based solely on anonymous report 13 Investigation Prompt investigation of: reports of policy violations complaints of bullying or retaliation
Name and contact information for designated investigator 14 Appeals Appeal process for: a person accused of bullying, a target of bullying, and any individual not satisfied with the outcome of the initial investigation. Prohibits retaliation Appeals are made to the designated higher-level authority
30 days Secondary investigation completed within 30 days, unless: additional time higher-level authority dictates in writing 15 days Human Rights Act 15 Understanding
cyberbullying in the context of the YBPA 16 Cyberbullying Prohibitions on bullying that occurs: on its property, including electronic communication on, or with, its property, and through electronic communication to the extent that it is directed at a youth and it substantially interferes with the youths ability to participate
in or benefit from the services, activities, or privileges provided by the agency, education institution or grantee 17 Responsibility around cyberbullying During agency hours Using agency property Outside agencys hours, on personal or other technology, if
affecting ability to use services NOT covered if it is NOT affecting youths ability to use services 18 If cyberbullying is not covered under the policy Digital citizenship Monitor youth: indicator for in-person bullying indicator for ongoing conflict
19 Session 1: Take-aways What was your biggest take-away from this session? Are you more comfortable with this content? How could you apply this content to our schools context? Was there anything in this training that surprised you?
Session 2 Bullying scenarios and best practices 21 Three practice scenarios 22 D.C. Youth Bullying
Prevention Checklist Step-by-step guide for investigating reports of bullying Students should be interviewed separately A written report from students is ideal, when age appropriate If it is a cyberbullying report, keep screenshots or printouts of the offensive
behavior 23 Scenario 1: Is this bullying? Scenario 1: checklist 1. Type of report 2. Involved students 3. Type of behavior 4. Context 5. Bullying Severe?
Pervasive? Persistent? 5. Bullying Target in fear? Effect on physical or mental health? Interfering w/academic performance, or attendance? Substantially interfering
w/ability to benefit? 6. Targeted characteristics Is this bullying? 25 7. Consequences Nature of incident Developmental age History of problem
behavior Scenario 2: Is this bullying? Scenario 2: checklist 1. Type of report 2. Involved students 3. Type of behavior 4. Context 5. Bullying Severe? Pervasive?
Persistent? 5. Bullying Target in fear? Effect on physical or mental health? Interfering w/academic performance, or attendance? Substantially interfering w/ability to benefit?
6. Targeted characteristics Is this bullying? 27 7. Consequences Nature of incident Developmental age History of problem behavior
Scenario 3: Is this bullying? Scenario 3: checklist 1. Type of report 2. Involved students 3. Type of behavior 4. Context 5. Bullying Severe? Pervasive? Persistent?
5. Bullying Target in fear? Effect on physical or mental health? Interfering w/academic performance, or attendance? Substantially interfering w/ability to benefit? 6. Targeted characteristics
Is this bullying? 29 7. Consequences Nature of incident Developmental age History of problem behavior
Best practices for intervention 30 When to notify parents Is there risk of harm in notifying parents? Evaluate Document reasons, for example: Outing of a student Known violent home environment
31 Addressing student needs even if bullying is not determined Students feel hurt even if bullying cannot be substantiated under the YBPA policy Protection and safety Supporting a harmed student does not require punishment of the accused
student Collaborate to support victim and to prevent further harm Increase monitoring of specific youth 32 Alternatives to exclusionary discipline Exclusionary discipline What is it? Why seek an alternative?
Restorative justice Strategies Why it works Understand outside factors 33 Common misdirections 34
Video from StopBullying.gov Session 2: Take-aways What was your biggest take-away from this session? Are you more comfortable with this content? What concrete next steps could you take after todays session? Think of a situation during which you could apply what you learned in todays
session. Session 3 Prevention; An introduction to school climate and the 8 key elements 36 The spirit of the law: prevention It is the spirit and not the form of law that keeps justice alive.
-Earl Warren, Former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Bullying policy vs. prevention YBPA school policies focus on reacting and responding to incidents of bullying as they occur To decrease rates, we must prevent bullying, not just react Youth Bullying Prevention Act 38
How do you prevent bullying? 39 Start with improving school climate All schools are unique Building school climate is preventive and reactive
40 School climate: Rainy and sunny days 41 What is a positive school climate? Is characterized by a common language, vision, and experience Allows students to thrive and focus
on learning Minimizes negative experiences and outcomes Engages students, staff, parents, and the community 42 School Climate Engagement Safety
Environment Relationships Emotional Safety Physical Environment Respect for
Diversity Physical Safety Academic Environment School Participation Substance Use
Wellness Disciplinary Environment 43 Model from the National Center for Safe and Supportive Learning Environments, U.S. Department of Education Benefits of a positive school climate Increased academic achievement
Increased attendance Increased graduation rates Decreased violence 44 The foundation for a positive school climate: 8 key elements Policy and enforcement Rules for behavior are established, agreed upon by the schools community, and enforced consistently. Data Data-collection and evaluation drive decision making. Buy-in Support and input is solicited from all members of the
schools community. Leadership Efforts are guided by teams representing the entire school community. Student engagement Students are actively encouraged to take a leadership role to shape their school climates. Family/community engagement The vital role of families and communities is recognized and integrated into schools efforts. Training All staff, including school support staff, are trained. Programs Research-based bullying prevention and school climate programs focused on areas of specific need. 45
Framework adapted with permission from the Safe School Certification Program (safeschoolcertification.org) A closer look at 8 key elements of school climate 46 Policy and enforcement Publication of policy for students
and parents Fully implemented Expectations clearly communicated Example indicators Bullying and harassment expectations posted in classrooms and common areas Planned orientations or discussions School staff understanding of the policy Fully implemented
Staff understand obligations Example indicators Investigators IDd and consistently investigate reports Scheduled staff trainings and discussions 48 Staff enforcement Fully implemented Policy enforced consistently
Example indicators Adult supervision increased in bullying hot spots Description of monitoring system is available Student use Fully implemented Students regularly report incidents Example indicators Detailed description of process orienting new students
Record of observed and reported incidents 49 Data collection and data-based decision making Recording reports Fully implemented All reports documented Example indicators
Bullying/harassment incident report form and corresponding reporting system. Student and parent complaint forms Anecdotal progress notes Documentation of bullying basis Fully implemented All reports include a documentation of perceived basis. This can include that no basis could be determined. Example indicator
Records detailing frequency of different bases for bullying 51 Survey data from students Fully implemented Regular student surveys Example indicators Data trend lines to demonstrate ongoing data collection (from survey reports)
Survey admin plan w/quantitative and qualitative data sources Survey data from school staff Fully implemented Regular staff surveys Example indicator Survey admin plan w/quantitative and qualitative data sources 52
Survey reliability and validity Fully implemented Survey items are from reliable and valid measures Example indicator Surveys or survey items selected from existing questionnaires, or validated Measurable targets or benchmarks Fully implemented
Measurable targets have been set for all aspects Example indicator Record of measurable targets 53 Data-based decision making Fully implemented Efforts clearly tied to IDd needs Example indicators
Data trend lines to demonstrate ongoing data collection Team meeting agendas indicate data use 54 Staff buy-in Staff engagement Fully implemented Staff highly engaged in decision-making
Example indicators Staff at all levels are engaged Staff attendance Staff commitment Fully implemented Surveys indicate 80% are committed Example indicator Formal buy-in survey data 56
Implementation and fidelity Fully implemented All staff engaged, with fidelity Example indicators An agreement to which staff agree Observations of program fidelity 57 Leadership
Leadership team meeting Fully implemented A leadership team formed and meets regularly Example indicators Meeting schedules Well-defined roles Team meeting minutes Leadership representation Fully implemented
Leadership team incl. diverse representation Example indicator Leadership team roster 59 Session 3: Take-aways What are four of the most important points you learned? Were you familiar with this content before this session? Do you feel more
comfortable with it now? Can you identify aspects of this session that directly relate to your school? What specifically? After hearing this session what changes would you want to make in your school? Session 4 The 8 key elements continued 61
The foundation for a positive school climate: 8 key elements Policy and enforcement Rules for behavior are established, agreed upon by the schools community, and enforced consistently. Data Data-collection and evaluation drive decision making. Buy-in Support and input is solicited from all members of the schools community. Leadership Efforts are guided by teams representing the entire school community. Student engagement Students are actively encouraged to take a leadership role to shape their school climates.
Family/community engagement The vital role of families and communities is recognized and integrated into schools efforts. Training All staff, including school support staff, are trained. Programs Research-based bullying prevention and school climate programs focused on areas of specific need. 62 Framework adapted with permission from the Safe School Certification Program (safeschoolcertification.org) Student engagement
Leadership team involvement Fully implemented Leadership team incl. students Example indicators Student leadership roster Meeting minutes Student feedback Fully implemented Students provide feedback and insight
Example indicators Qualitative surveys Convenient suggestion boxes Fishbowl discussions 64 Student clubs and leadership Fully implemented Students encouraged to form clubs and campaigns
Example indicators Clear and detailed policies and procedures List of all groups, numbers, demographics Descriptions of group insights Strategies for the disengaged Fully implemented Significant effort made to encourage all students Example indicator Documentation of strategies
65 Community and family engagement Communication with family and community Fully implemented Information actively disseminated to parents and community members Example indicators
Community and family newsletters Press releases, news coverage, social media Parent and community input Fully implemented Parent and community input is valued, sought regularly, used Example indicators Family night/open house planning Documented collaboration w/community Volunteer and training opps
67 Training Training offered to staff Fully implemented Training provided for ALL staff Example indicator Attendance log Training aligned to data
Fully implemented All training is aligned with data Example indicator Detailed training plan based on needs IDd in data Evaluation of training and professional development 69 Training aligned to policy Fully implemented Training is aligned with YBPA
Example indicators Training related to bullying definition, prevention, and intervention. School investigator is trained Facilitators outlines of staff trainings 70 Programs and practices Evidence base of programs
Fully implemented All programs are evidence-based Example indicators Documentation of the research base Programs aligned to data Fully implemented All programming is aligned with data Example indicators Artifacts from program
Implementation fidelity checklist 72 Multi-tiered programs Fully implemented School-wide, targeted, indicated programs and services Example indicator Record of differentiated implementation strategies
73 Resources National Center on Safe and Supportive Learning Environments (NCSSLE) StopBullying.gov Evidence-based program (EBP) directories National Registry of Evidence-based Programs and Practices What Works Clearinghouse FindYouthInfo.gov Evidence-based Directory Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency
Preventions Model Programs Guide Penn State University EPIS Center 74 Current climate capacity assessment 75 Questions and discussion
76 Final take-aways What did you learn about bullying intervention? What did you learn about bullying prevention? What new tools to you have to address bullying in your school? What immediate action steps can you take? Do you feel comfortable with the content? Would you feel comfortable teaching someone
else about the content you learned during these sessions?
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