SPINNING IN CIRCLES: THE CYCLE OF GENERATIONAL POVERTY AND DEVELOPMENT OF TRAUMA Travis Andrews, MS, LPCS, TFCBT Terrilyn Battle, MS, LPCA, CRC June 7, 2019 Theoretical Underpinning Social Constructivist Theory Theoretical Underpinning Focuses on the creation of reality and how individuals view the world Meaning is saturated in culture, history, place, and time Exploration of norms that guide thinking and behaving Consistent construction of knowledge Examination of origins and implications of an idea 2

SPINNING IN CIRCLES: THE CYCLE OF GENERATIONAL POVERTY AND DEVELOPMENT OF TRAUMA Poverty is hunger. Poverty is lack of shelter. Poverty Is being sick and not being able to see a doctor. Poverty is not having access to school and not knowing how to read. Poverty is not having a job, is fear for the future, living one day at a time. Poverty is losing a child to illness brought about by unclean water. Poverty is powerlessness, lack of Compassion International (2019) representation and freedom. 4

Poverty Types of Poverty Generational poverty Situational poverty Social poverty Educational poverty Health poverty Spiritual poverty Environmental poverty Economic poverty 5 Poverty in the US Poverty in 2017: 39.7 million people experienced poverty 26.1% of poverty rate were working-age people with disabilities

10.4% of poverty rate consisted of working-age people without disabilities Differences between 2016 and 2017 reflected a 0.4% decrease Individuals without health insurance coverage was 28.5 million 6 Poverty Rates Poverty rates of non-institutionalized workingage people by disability status Disability Type % MOE Number MOE

Base Pop. Sample Size No Disability 10.4 0.07 17,128,500 125,280 165,249,600 1,544,390

Any Disability 26.1 0.31 5,111,300 69,750 19,607,800 195,113 Visual 27.0

0.72 1,000,300 31,060 3,709,700 35,275 Hearing 19.8 0.63 762,300

27,120 3,843,300 38,727 Ambulatory 29.1 0.46 2,795,200 51,770 9,600,500

95,200 Cognitive 31.5 0.50 2,592,900 49,880 8,233,700 81,220 Self-Care

31.1 0.78 1,070,000 32,120 3,441,300 34,869 Independent Living 31.0 0.55

2,159,700 45,550 6,957,700 70,234 * Note: The Census Bureau does not calculate poverty status for individuals living in military group quarters or college dormitories 7 Statistics of Poverty Statistics of Poverty 40.6 million people lived in poverty in 2016 16.3% were women; 13.8% were men

21.2% of all children lived in poverty 9.3% were seniors living in poverty 8 What is Generational Poverty? Generational Poverty Generational Poverty Generational poverty is defined as a family having lived in poverty for at least two generations or longer. 10 Generational Poverty

Key factors of Generational Poverty Hopelessness Surviving vs. planning Values and patterns 11 Culture of Poverty Culture of Poverty Poverty is the result of peoples values and cultural norms Norms impact and shape our life choices and opportunities Culture itself is relatively fixed and unchanging 12 Causes of Poverty

Causes of Poverty Unemployment Poor physical health Emotional difficulties Substance abuse Low educational level Job layoffs Low paying jobs Mismanagement of resources Relational problems Traumatic experiences 13 Adverse Childhood Experiences Model 14 Contributions of Poverty on Trauma

Contributions of Poverty on Trauma Individual Distress: Potential to disrupt functioning across multiple domains Adult Intimate Relationships: Problems with communication, difficulty expressing emotion, high rates of hostility, aggression, and interpersonal violence Parent-Child Relationships: Attachment and mistrust stemming from parental withdrawal/worry Parenting: Decreased parental effectiveness, less warmth, limited understanding of child development and needs Family as a Whole: Impacted by high stress, disorganized lifestyles, and conflicting relationships 15 Implications Implications Counselor Educators Counselors-in-training

Helping professionals 16 References References Compassion International (2019). Poverty defined. Retrieved from https://www.compassion.com/poverty/what-is-poverty.htm Cornell University (2019). 2017 Disability status report: United States. Retrieved from http://www.disabilitystatistics.org/StatusReports/2017-PDF/2017-StatusReport_US.pdf? CFID=19943511&CFTOKEN=972add0f698a6ed0-65D76B39-B5D1-5ADF-5843932EEBF0EFC8. Cummins, E. (n.d.). Culture of poverty: Definition, theory & examples. Retrieved from https://study.com/academy/lesson/culture-of-poverty-definition-theory-examples.html Hughes, C., & Avoke, S. K. (2010). The elephant in the room: Poverty, disability, and employment. Research & Practice for Persons with Severe Disabilities, 35, 5-14. McAuliffe, G., & Eriksen, K. (2011). Handbook of counselor preparation: Constructivist, developmental, and experiential approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. Poverty USA. (2019). Poverty facts: The population of poverty USA. Retrieved from https://www.povertyusa.org/facts

United States Census Bureau (2018, September). Income and poverty in the United States: 2017. Retrieved from https://www.census.gov/library/publications/2018/demo/p60-263.html 17

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