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A childs background can disadvantage their education? s Social Clas s in Difference Education: TOPIC: EDUCATION Britain is arguably still one the most class based societies in the world. It is important to highlight the fact that social class is heavily tied in with educational achievement. Generally speaking, the higher an individuals social class, the higher their educational achievement. Learning Objectives for this Topic; You should; > Be able to describe the pattern of class differences in educational achievement. > Understand the difference between External & Internal Factors affecting achievement. > Understand & be able to evaluate the role of different external factors, including cultural deprivation, material deprivation & cultural capital > Understand & be able to evaluate the role of different internal factors, including labelling & the role of teachers within achievement including labelling, self-fulfilling prophecy, setting & streaming, subcultures & Social Class Differences in ocial s & : n n o io
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Access > Unequal m to Classroo owledge >Kn Pupil Subcultures > Wider l Educationa licies Home Factors Some explanations mainly focus on a childs background and how they are raised These can focus on CULTURAL FACTORS (socialisation/attitudes/values) Or can focus on MATERIAL FACTORS (resources/money) CULTURAL FACTORS This is how a child is raised. Our Daz better be no wimp at school ! Its the environment that they are reared in. Its about how they are SOCIALISED in the family and what they are taught to VALUE, their ATTITUDES and SKILLS that are needed for education success. This basic cultural equipment includes things such as language, self-discipline and reasoning skills. CULTURAL FACTORS Below are the headings of cultural factors that may influence a childs success in education. Can you think of anything that may come under
these headings? LANGUAGE Speech codes PARENTS EDUCATION Parenting style Parents educational behaviours Use of income Class, income and parental education WORKING-CLASS SUBCULTURE LANGUAGE PARENTS EDUCATION WORKING-CLASS SUB CULTURE Educated parents more likely to use language that challenges their children Working-class parents do not value education as much. Lack of parental interest reflects the subculture of the working class. Less educated parents only use language that requires children to make simple descriptive statements. Working-class parents are less ambitious for their children & give them less encouragement and took less interest in their education.
Large sections of the working class have different goals, beliefs, attitudes and values from the rest of society which is why their children fail at school. Educated parents are more likely to use praise. Working-class parents visit schools Working class children internalise less often. their beliefs and values through socialisation and this results in them underachieving at school. Discipline is harsh or inconsistent such as doing as youre told or behaving yourself Language used by lower-class families is deficient, they tend to communicate by gestures, single words or disjointed phrases. Educated parents are more likely to understand what is required. Better educated parents spend their money on things that promote their childrens educational success. The Education Theorists LANGUAGE Hubbs-Tait et al (2002) Where parents use language that challenges their children to evaluate their own understanding or abilities (e.g. what do you think?), cognitive performance improves. Leon Feinstein (2008) Found that educated parents use language more
in this way. Basil Bernstein (1972) Language is linked to developing understanding and thinking There are two language codes: - the elaborated code - the restricted code The restricted code Shorthand speech, short, simple sentences. Has an assumed element to it. Meanings are implicit. Much depends on gesture and expression. The elaborated code Detailed, explanatory, illustrative, analytical. Meanings are explicit. The benefits of an elaborate code Elaborate code enables people to think at a more deeper level. The elaborate code leads to a greater ability to use abstract thinking. That is to use concepts and make connections between ideas effectively. Elaborate code enables greater explanation and analysis to take place. These skills are vital for achieving well at school. The restricted code and the working class Working class families are based upon relationships that are hierarchical. No negotiation over decisions, parents assume authority (No back-chat!) and there is no discussion or elaborate dialogue. The same is true of working class jobs too..
manual workers know their place in a hierarchy and have little scope to negotiate and discuss. This language code disadvantaged working class children The elaborate code and the middle class Middle class families have less rigid relationships in them. The hierarchy is more flexible. People here are treated more as individuals who are entitled to have something to say. These families share decision-making and negotiation is common place. The same is true of middle-class non-manual jobs, where the middle class worker has more respect, freedom and independence. Schools operate with the elaborate code and therefore middle class children are at an advantage. The Education Theorists PARENTS EDUCATION Douglas (1964) found that working-class parents placed less value on education. As a result, they were less ambitious for their children, gave them less encouragement and took less interest in their education. They visited schools less often and were less likely to discuss their childs progress with teachers. As a result, their children had lower levels of motivation and achievement. Leon Feinstein (2008) reached similar conclusions. He argued that parents own education is the most important factor in affecting childrens achievement and, since middle-class parents tend to be better educated, they are able to give their children an advantage by how they socialise them. He said this occurs in 4 ways (parenting style, parents educational behaviours, use of income and class, income & parental education) The Education Theorists PARENTS EDUCATION Bernstein & Young (1967) found, middle-class mothers are more likely to buy educational toys, books and activities that encourage reasoning skills and stimulate intellectual
development. Working-class home are more likely to lack these resources and this means children from such homes start school without the intellectual skills needed to progress. The Education Theorists WORKING-CLASS SUBCULTURE Cultural deprivation theorists argue that lack of parental interest in their childrens education reflects the subcultural values of the working-class (a subculture is the group whose attitudes and values differ from the mainstream culture). They say large sections of the working-class have different goals, beliefs, attitudes and values from the rest of society and this is why children fail at school. Barry Sugarman (1970) shares their views and argues that working class subculture has 4 key features that act as a barrier to educational achievement (Fatalism, Collectivism, immediate gratification, present-time orientation). WHY? Why do you think these differences exist between working and middle class children in education? Sugarman argues that the difference in values stem from middleclass jobs being secure careers that offer prospects for continual individual advancement. This encourages ambition, long-term planning and willingness to invest time and effort into gaining qualifications. In contrast, working class jobs are less secure and have no career structure through which individuals can advance. Cultural deprivation theorists argue that parents pass on their values to their children through primary socialisation. Middle class values equip children for success, where-as working class values fail to do so. Compensatory Education Aim to tackle the cultural deprivation by providing additional resources to schools and communities in deprived areas. Intervene early in socialisation process. Best known example is : Operation Head Start in the US.
Sesame Street TV programme Educational Priority Areas, Education Action Zones and Sure Start are examples in the UK. The Myth? Widely criticised as an explanation of class differences in achievement. Nell Keddie (1973) sees cultural deprivation is a victim blaming explanation. She dismisses the idea that failure at school can be blamed on a culturally deprived background. She points out a child cannot be deprived of their own culture and argues working-class children are culturally different, not culturally deprived. They fail because they are put at a disadvantage by an education system that had predominantly middle-class values. She argues that rather than seeing workingclass culture as deficient, schools should recognise and build on its strengths and should challenge teachers anti-working-class prejudices. Barry Troyna & Jenny Williams (1986) argue that the problem is not the childs language but the schools attitude towards it. Teachers have speech hierarchy; they label middle-class speech highest, followed by working-class speech and finally black speech. Tessa Blackstone & Jo Mortimore (1994) found that fewer working class parents attend parents evenings, not through lack of interest, but because they work longer hours or less regular hours or are put off by schools middle-class atmosphere. Home Study due next Monday Work in your 2 groups group 1 you are from a working-class background, group 2 you are from a middle class background. Using textbooks, research and your own experiences, prepare a case for next lesson to explain why each class might be advantaged or disadvantaged in education because of the cluture of their social class. You can use these points to get you started: 1. Help with homework 2. Parents evenings 3. Attitudes towards school 4. Expectations of your future Research/ additional notes on the 4 features that act as a barrier to education according to Sugarman. Research Operation Head Start in the US & one from the UK. Learning Objectives
To know and understand material deprivation in external factors. To understand the sociologists linked to material deprivation. To be able to critically evaluate the external factors that have an impact class has on education. A childs background can disadvantage their education? Material Deprivation Many sociologists see material deprivation as the main cause of underachievement, unlike cultural deprivation which see the working class subculture as the main cause. What do you think the term material deprivation refers to? Poverty DFE (2012) 1/3 of students eligible for free school meal, achieve 5 or more GCSEs at A*-C, compared to nearly 2/3 of other pupils. Jan Flaherty (2004) money problems in the family are a significant factor in younger childrens non-attendance at school. Exclusion & truancy are more likely for children from poorer families. Children excluded from school are unlikely to return to mainstream education, while 1/3 of all persistent truants leave
school with no qualifications. Nearly 90% of failing schools are located in deprived areas. HOUSING DIET & HEALTH LACK OF FINANCIAL SUPPORT & COSTS OF EDUCATION FEAR OF DEBT Task With a partner: Using your textbook and information about the four policy areas in the clip, answer the following questions. 1. How effective do you think each intervention would be in overcoming the effects of material deprivation? Give reasons for your answers. 2. Do you think governments are likely to implement the plans shown in the film? Give reasons for your answer. 3. Rank the policy areas in order of importance to overcoming the problems of poverty in order to improve educational achievement. Compare your answers with the rest of the class. Prepare a short report to your MP on what policies you would like to see implemented to overcome the problems of material deprivation for pupils who are affected by poverty. Quick questions can you answer them? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Identify 3 ways in which parents education may influence how they socialise their children. Name 2 features of working-class subculture described by Sugarman. Identify 3 characteristics of the elaborated code. What is meant by compensatory education? Suggest 3 ways in which material deprivation may affect achievement.
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