Post-Natal Period of Development and Theories of Development
Post-Natal Period of Development and Theories of Development Basic Processes of Development Maturation Biological process of systematic physical growth Experience plays a role in specific contexts Children change dramatically from birth to adulthood
Stage Theories of Development Stages series of abrupt changes from one period to another All children must pass through in same order More qualitative than quantitative (such as child mastering physical properties of object) Stages of the Lifespan
Infancy (birth 2 weeks) Babyhood (2 weeks 2 years) Early Childhood (2 -7 years) Late Childhood (7-12 years) Puberty (10-16 years) Adolescence (12-21 years) Young Adulthood (21-35 years) Middle Adulthood (35 50 years) Late Adulthood / Old Age (50 above) Infant Abilities
Infants are born with immature visual system can detect movement and large objects Other senses function well on day 1 will orient to sounds turn away from unpleasant odors prefer sweet to sour tastes Born with a number of reflex behaviors Infant Reflexes Rootingturning the head and opening the mouth in the direction of a touch on the cheek Suckingsucking rhythmically in
response to oral stimulation Graspingcurling the fingers around an object Social and Personality Development Temperament--inborn predisposition to consistently behave and react in a certain way Attachment-- emotional bond between infant and caregiver Quality of Attachment Parents who are consistently warm, responsive, and sensitive to
the infants needs usually have infants who are securely attached Parents who are neglectful, inconsistent, or insensitive to infants needs usually have infants who are insecurely attached Language Development Noam Chomsky asserts that every child is born with a biological predisposition to learn language universal grammar Motherese or infant directed speech--style of speech used by adults (mostly parents) in all
cultures to talk to babies and children Language Development Infant preference for human speech over other sounds before 6 months can hear differences used in all languages after 6 months begin to hear only differences used in native language Cooingvowel sounds produced 24 months Babblingconsonant/vowel sounds between 4 to 6 months Even deaf infants coo and babble
Language Development MONTH 2 4 10 12 24 24+ Speech Characteristic Cooing vowel sounds Babbling consonant/vowel Babbling native language sounds One-word stage
Two-word stage Sentences Early Childhood Growth is less explosive and rapid than during infancy Lasts 2 to 7 years of age Cognitive development *Symbolic thinking, language used *egocentric thinking *imagination / experience grow Early Childhood Emotional and social development Most notable changes in peer
relationships and types of play Solitary play Parallel play Cooperative play Cooperative play Parallel play Solitary play Young Childrens Vocabulary Comprehension vocabulary-words that the infant or child understands Production vocabulary--words
that the infant or child understands and can speak Gender Role Development Gendercultural, social, and psychological meanings associated with masculinity or femininity Gender rolesvarious traits designated either masculine or feminine in a given culture Gender identityA persons psychological sense of being male or female Between ages 2-3 years, children can identify themselves and other children as boys or girls. The concept of gender or sex,
is, however, based more on outward characteristics such as clothing. Gender Differences Toddler girls tend to play more with dolls and ask for help more than boys Toddler boys tend to play more with trucks and wagons, and to play more actively After age 3 years we see consistent gender differences in preferred toys and activities Children are more rigid in sex-role stereotypes than adults Social Learning Theory
Gender roles are acquired through the basic processes of learning, including reinforcement, punishment, and modeling Gender Schema Theory Gender-role development is influenced by the formation of schemas, or mental representations, of masculinity and femininity Children actively develop mental categories of masculinity and femininity and categorize these into gender categories or schemas Trucks are for boys and dolls are for girls is an example of a gender schema Late Childhood Lasts from 7 to 12 years of age
Characterized by slow physical growth Important cognitive changes occur Conservation and reversibility Child decenters allows conservation problems to be solved; learns some matter changes shape but not volume Late Childhood Emotional and social development Child enters with close ties to parents Peer relationships become increasingly important Friendship is more important, last longer Cliques or groups formed, mostly same
sex Terms boyfriend and girlfriend have little meaning at this stage Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development Jean Piaget (18961980) Swiss psychologist who became leading theorist in 1930s Piaget believed that children are active thinkers, constantly trying to construct more advanced understandings of the world Cognitive development is a stage process Piagets Approach
Primary method was to ask children to solve problems and to question them about the reasoning behind their solutions Discovered that children think in radically different ways than adults Proposed that development occurs as a series of stages differing in how the world is understood Piagets Developmental Theory Identified 4 stages of cognitive development Sensorimotor stage infant experiences world in sensory information and motor
activities Preoperational stage children sometimes think illogically by adult standards Concrete operational stage increased abilities Formal operational stage use of full adult logic Sensorimotor Stage (birth 2) Information is gained through the senses and motor actions Child perceives and manipulates but does not reason Symbols become internalized through language development
Object permanence is acquired Object Permanence The understanding that objects exist independent of ones actions or perceptions of them Before 6 months infants act as if objects removed from sight cease to exist Can be surprised by disappearance/reappearance of a face (peek-aboo) Piaget Preoperational Stage (27 years)
Emergence of symbolic thought Egocentrism Lack of the concept of conservation Concrete Operational (712 years)
Increasingly logical thought Classification and categorization Less egocentric Conservation No abstract or hypothetical reason Formal Operational Stage (age 12 adulthood) Hypothetico-deductive reasoning Emerges gradually
Continues to develop into adulthood Summary of Piagets Cognitive Development Theory Birth to 2 Sensorimotor yrs Uses senses and motor skills, items known by use; Object permanence 2 - 7 yrs Symbolic thinking, language used; egocentric thinking, imagination/ experience grow, child de-centers
Adolescence Transition stage between late childhood and early adulthood Sexual maturity is attained at this time Puberty--attainment of sexual maturity and ability to reproduce Health, nutrition, genetics play a role in onset and progression of puberty Social Relationships Parent-child relationship is usually positive May have some periods of friction Peers become increasingly important Peer influence may not be as bad as
most people think. Adolescents tend to have friends of similar age, race, social class, and with same religious beliefs. Adolescent Development Physical development Puberty becomes production of sex hormones Primary sex characteristics appear Females menarche: menstruation, ovulation Secondary sex characteristics appear Females breasts, pubic hair, wider hips Males testes and penis growth, facial and pubic hair, broadened shoulders
Adolescence Cognitive development Formal operations stage entered Ability to use abstract concepts Shift to stage varies among individuals; some never reach this stage, others reach it in early adulthood Piagets classic experiment with weights Piagets Balance Test - task: make the weight times the distance equal on both sides of center 4-yr-old 7-yr-old
5 kg 5 kg A 10-yrold 5 kg C 5 kg
B 14-yr-old 10 kg 2 kg D 8 kg Adolescence
Adolescent egocentrism Imaginary audience everyone is watching Personal fable belief that s/he is unique Hypocrisy okay for one to do it but not another Pseudostupidity use of oversimplified logic Social development Time of drifting or breaking away from family Adolescence Emotional development G. Stanley Hall time of storm and stress Most adolescents are happy, welladjusted Areas of problems
Parent-child conflicts Mood changes - self-conscious, awkward, lonely, ignored Risky behavior - aggression, unprotected sex, suicide, use of substances or alcohol Eriksons Life-Span Development Theory Development proceeds in stages Each stage is
characterized by a psychosocial challenge or crisis Stages reflect the motivation of the individual Erik Eriksons Eight Stages of Human Development 8 - Integrity vs. despair 7 - Generativity vs. stagnation 6 - Intimacy vs. isolation
5 - Identity vs. identity confusion 4 - Industry vs. inferiority 3 - Initiative vs. guilt 2 - Autonomy vs. shame and doubt 1 - Trust vs. mistrust Eriksons Psycho-social Development Stages 1 - Trust vs. Mistrust 01 years Developed through consistent love and support 2 - Autonomy vs.
Shame and Doubt 13 years Independence fostered by support and encouragement 3 - Initiative vs. Guilt 35 years Developed by exploring and accepting challenges Eriksons Psycho-social Development Stages 4 - Industry vs.
Inferiority 6 yearspuberty Mastery comes from success and recognition 5 - Identity vs. Role Confusion Adolescence Exploration of different paths to attain a healthy identity 6 - Intimacy vs. Isolation
Early adult years Form positive, close relationships with others Eriksons Eriksons Human Psycho-social Development Development Stages Stages 7 - Generativity vs. Stagnation Middle Adulthood
Transmitting something positive to the next generation 8 - Integrity vs. Despair Late Adulthood Life review and retrospective evaluation of ones past Strategies for Eriksons Stages of Development Initiative Encourage social play
Have children assume responsibility Structure assignments for success Industry Nourish motivation for mastery Be tolerant of honest mistakes Identity Recognize that identity is multidimensional Encourage independent thinking Stimulate students to examine different perspectives Summary of Eriksons Theory Stage
Age Psychosexual to age 2 Oral Early 2-3 Anal Play Age
3-5 School Age 6-12 Infancy / Babyhood Psychosocial Crisis Virtue Danger
Hope Withdrawal Autonomy vs. Shame Will Compulsion/ Phallic Initiative vs. Guilt
Purpose Inhibition Latency Industry vs. Inferiority Competence Inertia Genital
Identity vs. Identity Confusion Fidelity Role Repudiation Trust vs. Mistrust Adolescence 12-18 Young
19-35 Intimacy vs. Isolation Love Exclusivity Adulthood 35-65 Generativity vs.Stagnati
on Care Rejectivity Old Age after 65 Wisdom Disdain Integrity vs. Despair
Adult Development Genetics and lifestyle combine to determine course of physical changes Social development involves marriage and transition to parenthood Paths of adult social development are varied and include diversity of lifestyles Adulthood Young adulthood through older adulthood Developmental changes continue throughout adulthood: not a single phase of life Taking on adult responsibilities in work
and social relationships Challenges: love, work, play continue changing Adulthood Physical development Growth and strength in early adulthood, then slow process of decline afterwards Speed and endurance Vision and ability to see in weak lighting Hearing and detection of tones Taste intact until later in life; men tend to lose hearing and taste earlier than women Decline affected by health and lifestyles
Adulthood Cognitive development Continues throughout adulthood; some abilities improve while others decline Fluid intelligence peaks in 20s, declines therafter Crystallized intelligence improves until 30s; then declines slowly afterwards Overall, individual rates vary depending on lifestyle and health Adulthood Emotional and social development Many aspects of personality are fairly
stable over time, and changes are predictable On average, adults become less anxious and emotional, socially outgoing, and creative People become more dependable, agreeable, and accepting of lifes hardships Gender differences lessen over time Adulthood Emotional and social development Much disagreement about when and how changes occur during aging differences between stages of
infant/child development and adult development Not all adults go through every stage Order of stages can vary for individuals Timing of stages not controlled by biological maturation Stages of Adult Life Early adulthood Erikson Intimacy versus isolation (17 to 45 years) Levinson - Early adulthood has three stages Entry into early adulthood (17-28) Age 30 transition (28-33)
Culmination of early adulthood (to age 35) Challenges of career, marriage, and parenthood Middle Adulthood Erikson Generativity versus stagnation (35-60 years) Taking stock of what one has, who s/he is Some are happy, some are disappointed Generativity reaching out, not selfcentered Middle Adulthood Levinson four brief stages
Midlife transition (early 40s) Entry to middle adulthood stage (45 to 50) Age 50 transition Culmination of middle adulthood Climactic Female sexual ability to reproduce declines Not all adult development timed by social clock rather than biological clock
Late Adulthood Old age as a time of poor health, inactivity, and decline is a myth Activity theory of aginglife satisfaction is highest when people maintain level of activity they had in earlier years Later Adulthood Erikson (age 60 and onward) Integrity versus despair Looks back over life as a whole: satisfying existence or merely staying alive Levinson devotes little to later years Life expectancy dramatically
increased as have conceptions of old age many have healthy years after retirement Second careers and activism launched Causes of Aging Biological human body deteriorates Psychological Happy or unhappy aging Social activity and slowed intellectual decline or disengagement and isolation Maintain healthy or unhealthy lifestyle Optimism linked to happier, healthier, longer life Death and Dying
In general, anxiety about dying tends to decrease in late adulthood Kubler-Ross stages of dying Denial Anger Bargain Depression Acceptance Kohlbergs Theory of
Moral Development Assessed moral reasoning by posing hypothetical moral dilemmas and examining the reasoning behind peoples answers Proposed six stages, each taking into account a broader portion of the social world Levels of Moral Reasoning Preconventionalmoral reasoning is based on external rewards and punishments Conventionallaws and rules are upheld simply because they are laws
and rules Postconventionalreasoning based on personal moral standards Summary of Kohlbergs Theory of Moral Development Level I: Preconventional moral reasoning Level II: Stage 1 might makes right Stage 2 look out for number one
Stage 3 good girl, Conventional nice boy moral reasoning Stage 4 law and order Stage 5 social Level III: contract Postconventional moral reasoning Stage 6 universal ethical principles Punishment/obedience
orientation: self-interest Instrumental/relativist orientation: quid pro quo Proper behavior for the social approval Proper behavior of the dutiful citizen, obey laws Mutual benefit to all, obey societys rules Defend right/wrong, not just majority, all life is sacred (reflective) Kohlbergs Theory of Moral Development Theory into Practice Sam starts to get out of his seat to sharpen his
pencil without permission. He stops because he realizes that if he does, others might also do so and this could result in disorder in the classroom. Because of this, he understands that it is his duty to follow the rules. Q: At which of Kohlbergs stages of moral development is Sam functioning? Kohlbergs Theory of Moral Development Theory into Practice Sam starts to get out of his seat to sharpen his pencil without permission. He stops because he realizes that if he does, he will be punished. Q: At which of Kohlbergs stages of moral development
is Sam functioning? Explain. Kohlbergs Theory of Moral Development Theory into Practice Sam starts to get out of his seat to sharpen his pencil without permission. He stops because he realizes that if he does, it will displease his teacher. Q: At which of Kohlbergs stages of moral development is Sam functioning? Explain. Application of Psychology: Parenting Parents play a key role in childrens lives
Parenting and infant attachment Parenting and discipline style Effect in childrearing: Two-way street Common discipline mistakes Lax parenting, verbosity, overreactivity, and reinforcement of inappropriate behavior Sociocultural factors in parenting Myth of the perfect parent Day care, divorce, and parenting Baumrinds Parenting Styles
Authoritarianvalue obedience and use a high degree of power assertion Authoritativeless concerned with obedience, greater use of induction Permissivemost tolerant, least likely to use discipline Neglectfulcompletely uninvolved Baumrind: Three Parenting Styles Style Authoritarian Permissive Authoritative
Warmth low high high Discipline strict high high rare low
low moderate moderate high low high high Expected Maturity Communication: parent-child Communication:
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