Learning and HRD Chapter 3 Werner & DeSimone (2006) 1 Learning Objectives After learning this chapter, you should be able to: Define learning and list at least three learning principles. Describe the three broad categories of issues that should be considered to maximize learning. Identify and discuss the training design issues that can be used to maximize learning.
Identify and discuss the factors that affect the transfer of training and how these can be used to maximize learning. Discuss how various individual differences affect the learning process. Discuss the value of adult learning theory to HRD interventions. Describe the role that learning styles, learning strategies, and perceptual preferences play in learning. Werner & DeSimone (2006) 2 Learning
It defined as a relatively change in behavior, cognition, or affect that occurs as a result of ones interaction with the environment Focus is upon change Change must be long-lasting The focus of learning can be cognitive, behavioral, or affective Results from the individuals interaction with the learning environment Werner & DeSimone (2006) 3 Learning Outcomes
Outcomes can be: Cognitive (Knowledge) Psychomotor (Skill- or behaviorbased) Affective (Attitude) Werner & DeSimone (2006) 4 Basic Learning Principles Contiguity things taught together become associated with each other Law of Effect a behavior followed by pleasurable experience is likely to be repeated
Practice repetition increases association and knowledge Werner & DeSimone (2006) 5 Limitations in the Foregoing Based on strictly controlled tests (lab studies) Practice doesnt always make perfect Werner & DeSimone (2006)
6 Improved Training Design Task Analysis Component Task Achievement Task Sequencing Werner & DeSimone (2006) 7 Task Analysis Break each task down into a series of distinct component tasks Keep breaking tasks down to the
simplest level possible Werner & DeSimone (2006) 8 Component Task Achievement Each task must be completed fully before the entire task may be performed correctly You have to specify what is to be done, under what conditions, and how it is to be evaluated
Werner & DeSimone (2006) 9 Task Sequencing Each component task should be arranged in the proper sequence Some are serial tasks Some can be done in parallel/similar Werner & DeSimone (2006) 10
Instructional Psychology to maximize learning What must be done before learning can take place -Describe the learning goal to be achieved - Analyze the initial state of the learner - Identify the conditions (instructional techniques, procedures, materials) allowing the learner to gain competence - Assess and monitor the learning process to determine progress and whether alternatives techniques should be used Werner & DeSimone (2006) 11
Maximizing Learning (Training) Trainee Characteristics Training Design Transfer of Training Werner & DeSimone (2006) 12 Trainee Characteristics Trainability trainees readiness to learn
Motivation Ability Perception of the work environment Personality and attitudes Werner & DeSimone (2006) 13 Training Design Issues It involves the learning environment to maximize learning
Conditions of practice Retention of what is learned Werner & DeSimone (2006) 14 Conditions of Practice Active practice Spaced versus massed practice whether training is made 1 session or divide it Whole versus part learning Overlearning Knowledge of results (feedback) Task sequencing-knowledge can learn
more effective if divide into subtask Werner & DeSimone (2006) 15 Retention of What is Learned Newly learned material is retained Meaningfulness of the material Degree of original learning Interference Knowledge before training
Changes after training Werner & DeSimone (2006) 16 Transfer of Training Does training make it to the job? Positive transfer Job performance improves after training Zero transfer
No measurable changes Negative transfer Performance becomes worse after training Werner & DeSimone (2006) 17 Maximizing Transfer Identical elements learning similar with performance situations
Physical fidelity-condition of training, ex tools=performance situations Psychological fidelity Werner & DeSimone (2006) 18 Identical Elements The closer the training is to the job, the easier it is to achieve transfer Direct relationship to the job Example: Customer service and
angry customers Role playing, business games, etc. Werner & DeSimone (2006) 19 Physical Fidelity Same physically Same procedurally Example: Flight and submarine simulators Werner & DeSimone (2006) 20
Psychological Fidelity Trainee experiences same stresses and conditions as he/she is being trained for Example: MS Flight Simulator Werner & DeSimone (2006) 21 Support in Work Environment Transfer of training into workplace is supported
A continuous learning environment Supervisors support and help develop training Training leads to promotion/better pay Trainee has opportunity to perform Werner & DeSimone (2006) 22 Allocation Theory (How Brain is Used) How well you pay attention determines how much you learn. How well you pay attention
determines how well you perform. The greater your intelligence, the more you pay attention. If youre motivated, you pay attention. Werner & DeSimone (2006) 23 Andragogy (M. Knowles) Adults are self-directed Adults already have knowledge and experience Adults are ready to learn relevant tasks
Adults are motivated to learn Adults expect to apply learning immediately Werner & DeSimone (2006) 24 How to Assess Trainee Differences Instrumentality Does trainee think training is applicable?
Skepticism Degree trainee questions and demands facts. Resistance to Change How well is change accepted? Werner & DeSimone (2006) 25 How to Assess Trainee
Differences 2 Attention Span How long can trainee focus on the lesson? Expectation Level What does trainee expect from the trainer/training? Dominant Needs
What drives/motivates the trainee? Werner & DeSimone (2006) 26 How to Assess Trainee Differences 3 Absorption Level How fast is new information accepted? Topical Interest
How interested is trainee in topic? Self-Confidence Degree of independence and self-regard Locus of Control Can trainee implement training on job? Werner & DeSimone (2006) 27
Gerontology Working with older people Older people can and do develop Older people should not be excluded from training Training must be geared for adults, not children Organizations must reward training Look at overall career patterns Werner & DeSimone (2006) 28 Learning Styles
Lots of research in this area Many different tests are available to measure: Learning ability Individual learning preferences Werner & DeSimone (2006) 29 Kolbs Learning Style Inventory
Among most popular tests used Proposes four modes of learning: Concrete Experience (CE)-more interpersonal relation, feeling rather thinking Abstract Conceptualization (AC)- more thinking Reflective Observation (RO)- watching
Active Experimentation (AE)- doing it Werner & DeSimone (2006) 30 Kolbs Learning Styles Convergent Thinking and Doing Divergent
Feeling and Watching Assimilation Thinking and Watching Accommodative Feeling and Doing Werner & DeSimone (2006)
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