.ZA & ZADNA History Key Milestones Overview ECT Act Mandate ECT Act Mandate ECT Act - S65(1) musts: Manage and administer .ZA domain License registries and registrars Comply with international best practice Publish relevant policy guidelines Create public awareness re economic & commercial benefits
Conduct investigations, research & surveys Advise Minister of Telecoms on domain policy issues ECT Act Mandate S65: ZADNA may: Conduct necessary investigations Publish .ZA domain name registration info Make policy recommendations to Minister S68: ZADNA may: Promulgate wide-ranging domain name regulations -
Subject to the Ministers approval S69: Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) ZADNA must accredit ADR adjudicators for co.za .ZA history Delegated by IANA (John Postel) to the Uninet Project (Mike Lawrie as administrator) Lawrie chose a second level structure for .ZA: Co.za for commercial, gov.za for government & its entities Registration at the third level: doc.gov.za
Follows .UK, .AU and others Some use a flat structure .DE History of .ZA & ZADNA .ZA history ECT Act process coincided with Lawries retirement ZADNA created by last minute negotiations during the Parliamentary process as a political compromise. This had been no easy journey as serious tussling took place between the Department of Communications and Namespace ZA which had been established by the Internet community to serve as the .ZA ccTLD Manager.
Chapter X of the Act was the final outcome after both parties came to an agreement on an independent, government-established entity to regulate and manage : ZADNA. ZADNA establishment: 2003 Established in 2003 when the Minister appointed a 9 member Board ZADNAs establishment resulted from a post conflict between industry and Government over management of .ZA Era of leave us alone vs need to formalise/regulate administration of ZA. Veterans didnt want government involvement while the government saw .ZA as a national resource that should not be left in the hands of
private individuals. ZADNA establishment: 2003 Informal era (1994 2002) led to Pioneering work, but One person taking responsibility delegated by IANA to manage .ZA Assigned SLDs such as co.za and org.za to Unix User Group, IS, others (no formal delegation) Guided by evolving DNS administration guidelines (pre ICANN)
ZADNA establishment: 2003 Industry and Government reached compromise in 2003 when the government committed to establishing a separate entity to be entrusted with, with the DOC committing to provide start-up funds & to non-participation in the NewCos Board. ECT Act promulgated Chapter X (about ZADNA) was a late addition to the Bill after compromise was reached. The Act, including its shortcomings, embodies a consensus status between industry and government. The Act established ZADNA as a non profit company with a membership base
where every SA citizen can become a member. Herein lies the complication about whether or not ZADNA is a PFMA entity. Conflict between being a company and frameworked by an Act ZADNA establishment: 2004 First Board meeting held on 9 Feb 2004 No funding received from DOC (DTPS) until in 2005). The Board held meetings & an individual Director largely funded Board activities. Director fees were not paid. Lack of funds meant staff could not be employed until
late 2005 when DOC first transferred funds. ECTA requires DOC to provide seed funding until ZADNA could become self-funding. Directors became operationally involved in the absence of staff. ZADNA establishment: 2004 Proportional Board Representation (2003 to 2007) 4 white males, industry geeks 3 black females, 1 black male Chair DoC representative at each board meeting till about 2007 New Directors were appointed in 2007 & continued in office until 30
March 2015 ZADNA gets down to work: 2004 .ZA zone file is delegated to ZADNA by IANA with the support of UniNet (Mike Lawrie). This was the most important development for ZADNA to start discharging its mandate because ZADNA now controlled the root file of .ZA. For example, no SLD could be added anymore without ZADNAs approval. ZADNA outsourced the zone file operation to Internet Solutions because it did not have capacity to operate it.
Internet Solutions continues to manage the zone file on ZADNAs instruction. ZADNA will assume zone file operation in 2015 after acquiring its own name servers. ZADNA establishment: 2004-2007 Board composed of industry veterans vs novices. Novices needed time to understand the domain business & models, resulting in no key strategic decisions made in the first few years. Industry adopts guarded attitude: suspicion of
government taking our Internet meant ZADNA was mistrusted & needed to clarify its strategic direction soon to ease industry anxieties. ZADNA chose to let the status quo continue for the first few years. ZADNA gets down to work: 2004-2007 Veterans in ZADNA Board proposed opposing policy options: Ignore what is out there and allow 2 nd level registrations
Let telkom.co.za register as telkom.za. Be polite to existing players & let them continue their work, but introduce new SLDs Several recently delegated SLDs decided to wait for ZADNA to clarify policy framework before they could accept new registrations. For example, ngo.za didnt open for registrations, while alt.za, net.za & web.za stopped accepting any more registrations pending ZADNAs policy. ZADNA gets down to work: 2004-2007 Novice side of the Board appreciates need to better
understand players to avoid tensions (ECTA requires ZADNA to maintain stability of DNS & to respect rights of existing players). Novices need education to make informed decisions. More time reading, researching, probingand attending ICANN meetings to get informed views. Board decided to put a moratorium on new SLDs pending ZADNA policy & registry-registrar licensing. Moratorium was only lifted in March 2015. ZADNA gets down to work: 2004-2007
Veteran Directors made it clear: Co.za had 90% of total .ZA registrations & its registry operator (UniForum SA) was the most influential player as it controlled the market. Inevitably, ZADNAs transformation of .ZA depended on relationship with UniForum. UniForum had its own corporate shortcomings, though, as it started out as a members entity but subsequently stopped accepting new members. It had conflicting supporters and detractors, and AGMs, for example, were no longer a regular occurrence. ZADNA needed to understand this dynamic better in
evaluating UniForums influence. 2005-2006 ZADNA consultations Following consultations with other country code Top Level Domains, Australia (.au) & United Kingdom (.uk) in particular, and following Boards attendance of the ICANN Cape Town 2004 conference, the Board decided to commence a consultation process. A Public Discussion Document (PDD) was released for public consultation in September 2005. PDD asked key policy questions that would help inform the Boards policy way forward
2005-2006 ZADNA consultations: Key policy question 1: Structure of .ZA: How should the South African domain name be structured? Should the sub-domain structure currently used be maintained? Should the domain be opened up for direct second-level registrations? 2005-2006 ZADNA consultations: Key policy question 2: Registry Model: Who should administer the database of .ZA domains? Should subdomains be administered by a centralised organisation, or by multiple registries?
What financial models are appropriate for a registry or registries? 2005-2006 ZADNA consultations: Key policy question 3: Registrar Model: Who should be licensed to access the database of .ZA domains? What should the license conditions be? Should registrars be permitted to appoint resellers? What conditions should apply to resellers?
2005-2006 ZADNA consultations: Key policy question 4: Second Level Domain Policy: Who should determine policy for second-level domains? What role should the current second-level administrators play in determining policy? Should some second-level domains be treated as special closed sub-domains? 2005-2006 ZADNA consultations: key outcomes Structure: support for retaining SLD structure, re-open some SLDs
Registry model: substantial support for centralised SLD registry operations Registrar model: support for reseller model SLD policy: ZADNA to determine policy & allow both open & closed SLDs. 2006: Institutionalization of ZADNA Institutionalisation of ZADNA: - General Manager appointed. - Establishment of organisational machinery. - Development of internal policies and systems.
ZADNA started participating actively in international domain name community through AfTLD & ICANN (ccNSO). - ZADNA CEO served in AfTLD Board between 2006 & 2012. ZADNA hosted AfTLD annual conference in 2008 (Sandton). 2006: From consultation to strategy & policy Consultant (Link-ICT) appointed to analyze public submissions & identify key agreement areas. Analysis supported: Centralisation of SLD registry operations.
Retaining SLD structure. Licensing of multiple registrars. Revenue sharing between ZADNA & registries. Need for clear policy to form basis of licensing process. 2007: Strategy & policy clarity Draft .ZA Policy & Procedures released for public comment Support for CR became clearer; support for developing licensing regulations. Ministerial Directive announced during the 2007 Budget Vote Speech directing ZADNA to establish single/central registry: More earnest engagements regarding single/central registry concept began.
ISPs & SLD administrators sought clarity & assurances. Promulgation of .ZA ADR Regulations. Appointment of 6 new Directors. 2007: Key lessons learned ZADNA recognised that: There was a dearth of DNS practitioners of colour. Lack of leadership on the continent. Therefore a commercial CR operator will have no incentive to address these issues. There is great experience on how to build and operate a CR right here in SA, but it was with Uniforum.
ZADNA explored possibility of it becoming the CR operator but encountered significant industry backlash: you cant be a referee & player at the same time! 2008: Facing realities ZADNA was now not keen on commercial CR operator. CR business model must generate human capital that promotes diversity and transforms industry. Only potential local operator was UniForum, but its governance weaknesses (4 directors having total control) presented a challenge.
Advice from the then Minister during bilateral: Work with Uniforum to implement a build, operate & transfer plan. 2008: CR & licensing focus ZADNA started working with UniForum in formalising relations between UniForum & its registrars by introducing registry-registrar separation. Licensing regulations released for public comment. State Law Adviser puts a halt on ZADNAs licensing regulations: Only the Minister can make s65 regulations. ZADNA cannot make s68 regulations without s65 regulations.
ZADNA has no powers to set license durations, suspend or revoke licenses, etc. ZADNA urged to have ECT Act amended first. ZADNA may not be a CR operator. 2008: CR & licensing focus ZADNA obtained independent Counsels legal opinion about whether or not ZADNA could operate the CR on its own. Opinion showed that would amount to referee & player complication. The ECT Act would have to be amended for this to happen. ICANN Paris 2008 major announcement: ICANN to accept new
gTLDs. No timeline set but policy & other consultations commenced in late 2008. ZADNA appreciated that it was possible for the CR to participate in the new gTLD program. CR needed to be a centre of operational excellence in Africa. 2009: CR & licensing focus DOC & ZADNA harboured hope to finalize licensing regulations without having to amend ECT Act. Revised registry & registrar licensing regulations were released for public comment.
Earnest CR engagement with UniForum began. It was clear reaching an agreement would be difficult as mistrust was visible & UniForum substantially adopted a know-it-all attitude & wanted agreement only on their terms ZADNA had to look at alternatives locally & internationally. UniForum began accrediting registrars for co.za with ZADNAs blessing. ZADNA felt that UniForum-accredited registrars would then absorbed from into ECT Act licensing once the Act was amended. 2009: non-CR focused work ZADNA assumes net.za & web.za management, but outsourced both
SLDs as ZADNA did not have ready skills to manage the SLDs. Review of all SLDs resulted in the deletion of stale SLDs. First education & awareness implemented focussing mainly on educating the SA media. First ever .ZA market survey was commenced for completion in 2010. 2010: Expanding focus Further revision of licensing regulations to address stakeholder concerns & issues raised by the State Law Adviser. Revised regulations released for additional public consultation.
ZADNA took a hard stance against UniForum & contracts Strategy Architects to develop CR business model & AusRegistry to develop CR operational policies, procedures & specifications. This sent a strong message to UniForum that ZADNA was prepared to go it alone, if needs be, with an international player. Both consultants recommended ZADNA to work with UniForum if CR was to succeed. 2010: Expanding focus .ZA market survey was concluded & its outcomes were very interesting: Support for introducing new SLDs was not very strong.
Calls for ease & speed of registration through automation i.e. call to speed up CR implementation. Co was much stronger & more affordable than .com in SA. Call to re-open net.za & web.za was clear. 2010: Expanding focus .ZA nameserver infrastructure upgrades were implemented, resulting in being able to accommodate both IPv4 & IPv6 queries. Anycast name servers were also deployed to ensure more distributed redundancy. ZADNAs smaller SLD registry data cleansing & update began, resulting in more accurate Whois data.
Org.za operator attempted to change org.za policy & org.za registrars appealed to ZADNA to intervene. Org.za policy workshop resulted in ZADNA not approving proposed org.za changes. State Law Adviser rejects revised licensing regulations. Agreement not to pursue licensing any more until Act is amended. UniForum commenced development of its EPP registry system. 2011: more focus on CR Outcomes of consultants work communicated to the Minister. The build, operate & transfer approach was confirmed.
ZADNA UniForum negotiations become more earnest & UniForum became more open-minded & accommodating in negotiations. Process grew from a Memo of Understanding to Heads of Agreement to draft detailed agreement. Key transformation targets were set: UniForum Directors to accept ZADNA Directors to form an interim Board with independent Chair. Eventual target to have UniForum Directors exiting the Board & fully focusing in their separate registry provider business. Separation of COZA Cares Foundation into a separate entity UniForum to be transitioned to ZA Central Registry (ZACR)
2011: more focus on CR ZADNA Board considers first draft of .ZA Domain Name Registration & Management Policy (later to become General Policy). Board felt CR project should be finalised before further work on the Policy. Additional consultations on proposed Org.za policy changes showed no support for the changes. ZADNA accordingly did not approve them. UniForum began co.za EPP registry system implementation. This provided ZADNA guarantees that UniForum was ready to serve as CR operator. Immediate benefit of the EPP system saw co.za registration
fee reduced from R50.00 to R39.00 (VAT incl.) per annum. This was well-received by the government & local Internet community. 2011: ICANN new gTLDs become a reality ICANN Singapore (June 2011): ICANN announces it would accept new gTLD applications between January & April 2012. The global scramble for the gTLD piece of the pie began, and ZADNA & UniForum certainly didnt want to be left behind. Scramble for dotAfrica hots up. AfTLD, chaired by ZADNA CEO, announced its intention to apply to ICANN for right to launch & operate
dotAfrica, thus openly challenging Dot Connect Africa (DCA). UniForum directors, in their private capacity as DNS Pty Ltd, join forces with Convergence Partners to establish Africa Registry Consortium (ARC) as a 3rd dotAfrica bidder. Yet it all hinged on the African Union Commission (AUC)!!! 2011: ICANN new gTLDs become a reality Cities of Cape Town & Durban report being approached by overseas commercial registry providers with a view of launching dotCapeTown & dotDurban with promises of gold for the Cities. Further ZADNA investigations confirm that Joburg had also been approached. ZADNA sought & secured DOCs support of availing ZACR to apply & operate
the ZAdotCities (dotJoburg, dotCapeTown & dotDurban). Scramble for dotAfrica heats up as AUC releases a dotAfrica endorsement RFP in November 2011 that made both the AfTLD & ARC projects unsustainable. Under pressure, ZADNA boldly proposed to launch & operate dotAfrica through Uniforum (as ZACR designate) in the interests of the AUC & African Internet community. 2011: ICANN new gTLDs become a reality ZADNAs proposed ZACR dotAfrica bid receives support of African Internet community & is greatly boosted when AUC selects ZACR as its
preferred bidder. Not everyone was happy though & some within AfTLD needed to be persuaded more. DOC gave ZADNA a go-ahead to endorse ZACR for dotCities on condition that the 3 municipalities supported the applications. ZADNA succeeded in getting the municipalities support. ZADNA relocates to COZA House to accelerate both new gTLD & CR cooperation. 2012: ICANN new gTLDs & CR completion ZADNA focuses on assisting ZACR in launching the dotCities & dotAfrica
applications. ZACR funds each application at $185,000 for each application. CR negotiations eventually resume in mid-2012. Finally, the CR agreement is concluded in November 2012: UniForum to become ZACR & assume net.za, org.za & web.za operation in addition to co.za. 3 ZADNA Directors join Uniforum Board. ZADNA starts receiving ZACR domain name fees dating back to 1 April 2012. ZADNA finally becomes self-fundingand looses SARS VAT exemption in the process
2013: Experiencing exciting times ICANN evaluations of ZACR gTLD applications proceed in earnest. DotAfrica lobbying becomes taxing & ever ongoing, but it still remains a fulfilling experience. All ZACR gTLD applications pass ICANNs strict technical, financial & legal evaluations. ZADNA releases net.za, org.za & web.za charters for public comment to prepare the 3 SLD transition to ZACR. Support for re-opening of net.za & web.za was clear. Number of ZACR-accredited registrars exceeds 300 local & international registrars. Co.za alone exceeds 800,000 registrations.
ZADNA hosts both Africa DNS Summit & ICANN-47 conference in Durban. 2014: Exciting times continue Web.za is relaunched in May 2014 following approval of its charter in March 2014. Net.za & org.za relaunch is delayed to allow ZACR to launch dotCities in June 2014. dotCities are launched in July 2014 starting with sunrise & land rush. Public registrations commenced in November 2014. Launch of dotAfrica is nowhere in sight as Dot Connect Africa files legal challenges against ICANN for having accepted ZACRs dotAfrica
application! Were still waiting to date, but remain certain dotAfrica will eventually launch. Net.za & org.za are relaunched in August 2014 following approval of charters. 2014: Exciting times continue SLD General Policy is released for public comment following extensive internal reviews. Minister gazettes call for comment regarding the extension of ADR Regulations to include net.za, org.za & web.za in addition to co.za.
ZADNA leads the dotCities and dotAfrica Reserved Name List process & assists to the 3 municipalities to finalise their list of reserved names prior to the launch of the dotCities. ZADNA finalizes total statistics of domain name registrations in nonZACR SLDs. 2014: Concerning signs emerge Even though substantially transformed, old UniForum attitudes appear, calling for ZADNAs tighter regulation of ZACR: Monthly reports not submitted on time. No progress in implementing certain Operating Agreement aspects. No commitment to absorb core registry operations from the technical
operator appointed by ZACR. ZADNAs role in dotCities visibly under-stated & needs ZADNA to clarify its role in consultation with the city municipalities. 2014: Concerning signs emerge Increasing expenditure in unwarranted, non-core projects COZA Cares Staffing costs ICANN travel
Increasing expenditure in non-.ZA projects dotAfrica dotCities (dotCapeTown, dotDurban, dotJoburg) 2015: Concerning signs increase Then ZADNA Directors becoming ZACR Directors The initial plan in 2012 was an interim Board participation, but they
continued beyond that Reality of then UniForum appointing themselves as contractors to UniForum ZACR fee review process leads to a dispute against ZADNA Board Board Committees (Manco, Finco, Techcom)
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