Asper School of Business - MBA Program 6150

Asper School of Business - MBA Program 6150

Asper School of Business - MBA Program 6150 Management of Information Systems & Technology April-June 2009 Instructor: Bob Travica Class 7 Distributing Business and Systems Updated May 2009 Outline Strategies of Distributing Business & Systems Concept of Distributed Systems Client-Server Architecture Messages for change leadership 6150 Management of Information Systems & Technology 2 of 12 Strategies of Distributing Business & Systems Organizations dispersed in space (individuals, groups, units; e.g., salespeople in master case) Dispersed org. entities can have different informationl a nd . a on i t

r needs t s v re na ke a r ti o n m al oduc c o r l & pr o f e r i ng ) r s tu rc ac sou sale f nu s ( & Ma port ting ex rke a m low d oo e r

f s; t s i s d Fa nch nal s. fra cDo es v HR, (M anc ng, fin urci so les) Spatial dispersion sa r ) tu ac inte ng f u , i an cing rket M al o u r m a n tio bal s ion,

a t ltin ; glo duc u M rd pro (Fo D, R+ high Information systems have to support different strategies of distributing business Inter-cultural aspect (master case) 6150 Management of Information Systems & Technology 3 of 12 Distributed Systems Concept: What Can Be Distributed An aspect of systems architecture (overall design of computing resources). Information System Parts (resources, services) Data (Data mgmt, Database) User Interface (Presentation,

input/output screens) Application Software (Functionality, Data processing) Any of these parts can be distributed data, functionality, More user interface. If all run by one computer, the system is centralized. 4 of 12 6150 Management of Information Systems & Technology Distributed Systems: Data View Rule #1 for distributed systems: Make data available where users need them. Method 1: Central store, distributed access. Role of networks (3i, Northwest Airlines). Method 2: Partition data store. Data fed and searched locally; occasional cross search. Purchasin g Toronto Production

Winnipeg Sales Vancouver More 5 of 12 Method 3: Data partitions stored locally in real time, and partitions replicated across locations in certain intervals. Purchasing Production Sales Toronto Purchasing Production Sales Purchasing Production Sales Vancouver Winnipeg Golden rule: Regardless of the specific architecture, users should not care if a system is distributed and in

what manner. Access should be seamless. 6 of 12 Distributed Systems Continuum Data processing, data storage, user interface a continuum showing levels of distribution of system parts in an enterprise: Mainframe with dumb terminals in departments Centralized Client-Server Systems in/across departments Departmental stand-alone systems Decentralized Computer networks key role in distributed systems. Networks are part of IT Infrastructure (foundational systems serving entire enterprise). 6150 Management of Information Systems & Technology 7 of 12 Client-Server (C/S) Architecture

Most frequent today C/S systems distribute data, functionality or both between a machine that requests a service (client) and a machine that provides a service (server). Client Request Server Service Division of responsibilities for data and functions, user interface usually on the client. 6150 Management of Information Systems & Technology More 8 of 12 Models of Client-Server Architecture Models of C/S architecture determined by different patterns of sharing responsibility for data, functionality, and user interface

between computers. Shared Processing (both server and client have certain functionality; LAN w/ database server, Internet models applets, Web services) Database Sever - Database (data) - Query and Report processing Report creation Request Report Data lookup, input Data table transfer Client - Input/Output screens - Query and Report code More Note: Server is software, but it usually runs on a dedicated computer.

9 of 12 Variant of Shared Processing with middleware Middleware (Code defining rules of business*; translation software) Database Server (Databases can be on a mainframe - legacy system) Client (Application software) * Example from HR domain: An employee is defined by an employee number, name, job position, is associated with 1 department, reports to 1 manager, cannot have $0 salary, can have different benefit packages over time, etc. More 6150 Management of Information Systems & Technology 10 of 12 Variant of Shared Processing via the Internet (applets; Web services) Web page Web

Server Request Mortgage Info Request Client Web page with cust. data + applet - Upon getting Internet data & applet, runs if-then calculations st Application Reque ted sla Server tran translated Database Server data r e om

Cust Customer Data + Mortgage Applet Other systems Case: Chubb & Son Cases: SABRE More 6150 Management of Information Systems & Technology 11 of 12 Messages for Change Leadership If business is to get distributed, determine how can IS support this strategy. Beware that data must be available where users need them, and that users should not worry whether the system is distributed or not. Be sensitive to companys culture regarding its readiness for distributed systems (trust issues). 6150 Management of Information Systems & Technology 12 of 12

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