12 Ladders 12 Objectives List and describe the parts of a ladder. Describe the different types of ladders. Describe how to clean and inspect ladders. Describe the hazards with ladders. Describe how to deploy a ladder. Describe how to work on a ladder. 2
12 Introduction The fire service ladder is one of the most basic fire fighter tools. Ladder technology has not changed much over the years. Every fire fighter must be proficient in working with ladders. 3 12
Primary Functions of a Ladder Provides a vertical path between grades Provides an escape path and a means to evacuate people Can be used as a working platform Can bridge a small opening 4 12 Secondary Functions of a Ladder
Provides stable footing and distribute weight on pitched roofs Creates a ladder gin to raise or lower people or objects Provides a platform for equipment Creates a ramp for equipment or patients Creates a water chute 5 12 Ladder Construction Fire service ladders are similar to other
types of ladders. But are specialized tools, not general purpose ladders Require heavy-duty construction Require more frequent and thorough maintenance 6 12 Basic Ladder Components (1 of 2)
Beams One of two main structural components that run the entire length of most ladders or ladder sections Three types of beam construction: Trussed beam I-beam Solid beam 9
12 Rail and Truss Block Rail Top or bottom section of a trussed beam May also refer to top and bottom surfaces of an I-beam Truss block Piece that connects the two rails of a trussed beam 10
12 Rung and Tie Rod Rung Crosspiece that spans the two beams of a ladder Serves as steps and transfer users weight Tie rod Metal bar that runs from one beam of the ladder to the other to keep the beams from separating 11
12 Tip, Butt, and Butt Spurs Tip Very top of the ladder Butt End of the ladder that is placed against the ground Butt spurs Metal spikes attached to the butt of a ladder 12
12 Butt Plate and Roof Hooks Butt plate or footpad Alternative to a simple butt spur Incorporates both a spur and a cleat or pad Roof hooks Spring-loaded, retractable, curved metal pieces attached to the tip of a roof ladder Used to secure the ladder to the peak of a pitched roof 13
12 Heat Sensor Label and Protection Plates Heat sensor label Identifies when the ladder has been exposed to specific heat conditions that could damage its structural integrity Changes color when exposed to a particular temperature
Protection plates Reinforcing pieces placed at chaffing and contact points to prevent damage 14 12 Extension Ladder Components
Bed Section and Fly Section Bed section Widest section Serves as the base Fly section Part that is raised or extended from the bed section Each fly section extends from the previous section 16 12
Dogs and Guides Dogs Mechanical locking devices used to secure the extended fly sections Guides Strips of metal or wood that guide a fly section as it is extended 17 12 Halyard and Pulley
Halyard Rope or cable used to extend or hoist the fly sections Pulley Small grooved wheel used to change the direction of the halyard pull 18 12 Stops and Staypoles Stops
Pieces of wood or metal that prevent the fly sections from overextending and collapsing the ladder Staypoles Long metal poles attached to the top of the bed section Help stabilize the ladder as it is raised and lowered 19 12 Types of Ladders
Aerial ladders Permanently mounted and operated from fire apparatus Portable ladders Carried on fire apparatus Designed to be removed and used in other locations 20 12 Aerial Ladders
Permanently mounted, power-operated ladders Working length of at least 50' Have at least two sections Often referred to as straight-stick aerials 21 12 Elevating Platform
Includes passengercarrying platform attached to tip Ladder or boom must have at least two sections Telescoping Articulating 22 12 Portable Ladders Number and lengths of ladders used by
a department depend on the maximum height of buildings in the response area. Generally, portable ladders are limited to a length of 50'. 23 12 Straight Ladder Single-section, fixed-length ladder May also be called wall ladders or single ladders Commonly 12' to 20' long, but can be up
to 30' and longer 24 12 Roof Ladder Straight ladder with roof hooks Sometimes called a hook ladder Provides stable footing Usually 12' to 18'
long 25 12 Extension Ladder Adjustable length Multiple sections Usually heavier than a straight ladder of the same length 26
12 Bangor Ladder Extension ladder with staypoles Staypoles are planted in the ground on either side for additional stability. 27 12
Combination Ladder Convertible from a straight ladder to an A-frame, stepladder Generally 6' to 10' in the A-frame configuration and 10' and 15' in the
extension configuration 28 12 Folding Ladder Also called an attic ladder Narrow, collapsing
ladder Designed to allow access to attic scuttle holes and confined areas 29 12 Fresno Ladder
Narrow, twosection ladder Designed to provide attic access Commonly available in 8' to 14' lengths 30 12 Pompier Ladder
Lightweight, singlebeam ladder Used to climb the outside of a building Today, only used when no other option is available 31 12
Inspection, Maintenance, and Service Testing NFPA 1931 establishes requirements for ladder construction. NFPA 1932 provides general use guidance. Regular inspection, maintenance, and testing 32 12 Inspection
Ground ladder visually inspected monthly or after each use Splintering, cracking, deformity, breaks, gouges, fraying, or other conditions indicating failure Components fit snugly and operate smoothly. Heat sensor label If deficiencies are revealed, remove ladder from service and repair it. 33 12 Maintenance
All fire fighters should be able to perform routine maintenance. Only qualified personnel should repair ladders. Basic maintenance tasks: Clean and lubricate the dogs and slides. Replace worn halyards. Clean and lubricate roof hooks.
Maintain finish. Replace ladder in storage racks. 34 12 Cleaning Clean regularly and after each use with warm, soapy water and a soft-bristle brush. Dry ladder before storing it.
35 12 Service Testing NFPA 1932 requires periodic testing of ground ladders. Test new ladders before use and
annually thereafter. Test ladders after any repairs before placing back in service. Maintain service and testing records for each ladder. 36 12 Ladder Safety Several potential hazards are associated with ladder use. Use with caution and follow manufacturers recommendations.
37 12 General Safety Requirements Use full PPE around ladders. Fire fighters must be able to work with and on ladders while wearing SCBA. 38 12
Lifting and Moving Ladders Teamwork is essential when moving ladders. Ask for help lifting or moving heavy ladders. 39 12 Placement of Ground Ladders Survey area before placing ground ladders. ALWAYS check for
overhead wires and other obstructions. Place ladders on stable and relatively level surfaces. Avoid heat and direct flame. 40 12 Working on a Ladder (1 of 2) Check climbing angle before
climbing. Ensure dogs are locked and halyard is tied before climbing. Secure the base by heeling. 41 12 Working on a Ladder (2 of 2) Do not exceed ladders rated weight. Distribute weight along the length of the
ladder. No more than one fire fighter on each ladder section Be prepared for falling debris. Be prepared to climb down quickly if conditions change rapidly. 42 12 Rescue Anticipate actions of people you are trying to rescue.
Do not let people jump to the ladder. Do not let more than one person on each section. Make verbal contact with victim. Safeguard victims as they climb down. Have another fire fighter guide you and the victim. 43 12 Ladder Damage Ladders may be easily damaged while in use.
Remove from service any ladder used outside of normal limits. Even if no damage is visible 44 12 Using Portable Ladders Using a ladder requires that fire fighters complete a series of consecutive tasks. Select the best ladder. Remove the ladder from apparatus and carry it to the required location.
Raise and secure the ladder. Lower the ladder and return it to the apparatus. 45 12 Ladder Selection (1 of 5) Select the right ladder for the job. Be familiar with all ladders carried. Ensure ladder is long enough. Floor-to-floor height (residential): 8-10' Floor-to-windowsill height (residential): 3' Floor-to-floor height (commercial): 12'
Floor-to-windowsill height (commercial): 4' Length depends on use of ladder. 46 12 Ladder Selection (2 of 5) Roof access Ladder tip should extend five rungs above roofline. 47
12 Ladder Selection (3 of 5) Window access (not rescue) Ladder tip should be at the side of and even with the top of a window. 48
12 Ladder Selection (4 of 5) Window rescues Ladder tip should be at the windowsill. 49 12
Ladder Selection (5 of 5) Proper climbing angle is 75 to the ground. Ladder will need to be slightly longer than the vertical distance between the ground and the target. Approximately one additional foot for each 15' of vertical height 50 12 Removing the Ladder from
Apparatus Know what ladders are stored and where. Know how to remove them and how many people are needed. Do not lay ladders on the ground near exhaust pipes. 51
12 Lifting Ladders Use sufficient assistance to lift heavy ladders. Know the lifting commands and procedures used in your area. Bend at the knees and keep your back straight when lifting.
52 12 Carrying Ladders Basic Types: Single fire fighter carry Shoulder carry Suitcase carry Flat carry Flat shoulder carry Carries can be done in combinations of two, three, or four fire fighters.
53 12 Placing a Ladder (1 of 2) Site selection General area chosen by officer in charge Specific area chosen by fire fighter at the butt end
Stable, level surface No manhole covers or trap doors Free from overhead obstructions At least 10' from power lines Away from door and other high-traffic areas 54 12 Placing a Ladder (2 of 2) Climbing angle 75 Ladder is arms length away when standing
vertically. Vertical reach 4x distance from base of the structure Check inclination guide. 55 12 Raising a Ladder (1 of 2) Use a beam raise when ladder must be raised parallel to the target. Use a rung raise when ladder must be raised perpendicular to the target.
Combinations of one, two, three, and four fire fighters can be used for raise. 56 12 Raising a Ladder (2 of 2) Tying the Halyard Keeps it out of the way Provides a backup to the dogs for securing the fly section Fly section orientation
Ladder manufacturer will specify. Metal or fiberglass ladders are generally used fly section out. 57 12 Securing the Ladder (1 of 2) Heeling the ladder Standing under ladder, pull back into structure. Place a foot against each beam.
58 12 Securing the Ladder (2 of 2) Tie the ladder off. Tie the bottom rung to a secure object. Tie the tip of the ladder to a secure object. 59 12
Climbing the Ladder Ensure ladder is properly secured. Check climbing angle. Climb slowly; avoid bouncing. Wear proper PPE and lower face shield. Hoist tools by rope if possible. Do not overload ladder.
No more than two fire fighters on a ladder 60 12 Dismounting a Ladder Ensure roof or floor is solid and stable before dismounting. Test with a tool before stepping off. Maintain contact with ladder at three points.
Do not shift weight until you have tested the footing. 61 12 Working From a Ladder Use a ladder belt or a leg lock to secure yourself to the ladder. Do not attempt work
from a ladder without properly securing yourself first. 62 12 Placing a Roof Ladder
Open roof hooks on the ground. Place on ground ladder with hooks up. Slide or hoist the roof ladder upward. Once on the roof, slide the roof ladder into position and flip it over when hooks clear the peak of the roof. Secure the roof ladder. 63 12 Summary (1 of 2)
Fire fighters must be competent in the basic skills needed to use portable ladders safely. In addition to using ladders, fire fighters must be able to inspect, maintain, and field test them. 64 12 Summary (2 of 2)
Ladders are used to gain access to a higher or lower elevation, perform rescues, provide a platform from which to work, as an emergency egress, and to support equipment or fabricate a water chute. Fire fighters must know how ladders are constructed and what ladders are appropriate for what jobs. 65
The Dinosaurs of Jurassic Park ... Herbivores 10 to 40 ft long Weighed 3 tons Favorite food of T. Rex Small, Bipedal Herbivore Fast running 4ft long, 1 ft high, 50 lbs. Herbivores - swallowed stones, did not chew food...
SHINE Selected Heritage Inventory for Natural England Selected National Heritage Dataset Enhancement Project Recap - SNHD SNHD - Selected National Heritage Dataset Created in late 2004 in time for launch of ES Data came primarily from the NMR Ten HERs...
There is NO correlation between the sign of the optical rotation and the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms * * 7.6: The Cahn-Ingold-Prelog R-S Notational System Assigning the Absolute Configuration Use the Cahn-Ingold-Prelog priority rules (Chapter 5) to assign priority (one...
Non reactivity of alkanes (in relation to acids, alkalis, metals, water, because they are non-polar molecules).. Low melting and boiling points - intermolecular forces are weak van der Waal forces. Odour - hydrocarbons are volatile because they have weak intermolecular...
Obvious distortion, bruising, tenderness, spring test genitalia (bleeding, discharge, incontinence) Spine (from the back on log roll) Obvious distortion, bruising, sensation, tenderness (run the fingers along the spine) Arms and legs.