Umbilicus & Umbilical Cord 1 The umbilicus, also

Umbilicus & Umbilical Cord 1  The umbilicus, also

Umbilicus & Umbilical Cord 1 The umbilicus, also called the navel, is a scar It represents the former attachment of the umbilical cord in the fetus. The umbilicus is an important landmark on the

abdomen, The skin around the waist at the level of the umbilicus is supplied by the tenth thoracic spinal nerve (T10 dermatome). Underlying abdominal muscle layers also present a concavity; Thinness at this point contributes to a relative structural weakness that makes it susceptible to

hernia. The umbilicus is also used as a landmark to describe the four quadrants of the abdomen - upper left, upper right, lower left, lower right. 2 Definition

Umbilical cord is the connection between the foetus and the placenta (uterus) through which the foetal circulation is maintained until birth. Development In the early stages of development of the embryo it is called the body stalk. It connects the embryo to the cytotrophoblast. With the

development of blood vessels it becomes the umbilical cord. The umbilical cord during the early stages contains the vitellointestinal duct a connection between the midgut and the yolk sac 3 The vitelline vessels and duct, together with the right umbilical vein, undergo atrophy and disappear; and thus the cord, at birth,

contains a pair of umbilical arteries and one (the left) umbilical vein. Contents The umbilical cord consists of a tubular or cylindrical long tissue. It contains in it the two umbilical arteries and one umbilical vein. The umbilical arteries convey the deoxygenated blood from the foetus to the placenta

The umbilical vein conveys oxygenated blood from the placenta to the foetus The rest of the cord consists of the foetal tissue called the Whartons jelly. During one stage of development the base of the umbilical cord contains a few of the organs of digestion in it due to the smaller size of the abdominal cavity. Later as the foetal abdominal cavity enlarges the organs return into the more capacious abdomen and the

abdominal wall closes at the site of attachment of the umbilicus. Failure of the abdominal wall to close at the base of the umbilical cord will result in a condition called exomphalus 4 Vessels inside the Umbilical Cord 5

6 Body stalk 7 Alantois and umbilical cord

8 Allantois,yolk sac,decidua 9 Umbilical Cord and The Baby

10 Umbilical Stump 11 Umbilical Cord Cut During Delivery

12 Umbilical Cord Hernia 13 Umibilica Cord Blood Drawn and preserved used

to cure certain diseases 14 15 Umbilical Cord Clamps

16 The vessels of the umbilical cord 17 Cord blood, or umbilical cord blood, is the blood remaining in child's umbilical cord

following birth. It is a substance rich in stem cells, the building blocks of the blood and immune systems. 18 Stem cells can divide to become other types of cells. The stem cells found in umbilical

cord blood and bone marrow can divide and become red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. They have been used as part of the treatment therapy in over 40 different cancers, immune deficiencies and genetic disorders.

19 How do cord blood stem cells compare to other sources of stem cells? Cord blood is a rich, non-controversial source of stem cells. Cord Blood stem cells have successfully treated children and adults.

Cord blood stem cells are now used in the treatment of over 40 life-threatening diseases. Cord blood is readily available when needed (if collected and stored at birth). Cord blood stem cells are a perfect match for your baby and have up to a 75% chance of being a match for your baby's siblings.

- 20 Researchers are now looking to cord blood for answers to; heart disease, stroke, diabetes and muscular dystrophy.

21 When is the cord blood collected? There is only one time that cord blood can be collected: at birth. How is the cord blood collected? . After the baby is born, but before the placenta is delivered, a 4-to 8-inch area of umbilical cord is cleaned

with antiseptic solution and the blood bag needle inserted into the umbilical vein. The blood flows into the bag by gravity until it stops, after which the collection is complete. The blood bag is clamped, sealed and labeled. The collection typically takes 2-to 4-minutes. Three tubes of maternal blood are also drawn. 22

exomphalos 23 Exomphalos after closure 24

Exomphalos, sometimes called Omphalocele occurs when the abdomen fails to close around the base of the umbilical cord during the early development of the baby. The size of the Exomphalos depends on the number of organs exposed. This is usually the bowel but may include the liver and other organs.

The sac containing the exposed organs is usually covered in a protective membrane. The abdominal cavity is sometimes smaller in Exomphalos children due to the organs growing externally. In about 30% of cases Exomphalos occurs in conjunction with other birth defects. 25

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