HOW WELL DO YOU FEEL YOU ARE ABLE TO ADDRESS THE NEEDS OF DIVERSE LEARNERS? On a scale of 1-4 4 I could be teaching this professional development 3 I use new strategies often 2 I know some strategies 1 I dont feel well prepared Valuing Similarities and Differences
of Diverse Learners Review of Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), 2004 Rehabilitation Act of 1973, Section 504 Floridas Meta Consent Decree for English Language Learners (ELLs) REVIEW OF IDEA, 2004
History of ESE Services Originally named the Education for all Handicapped Children Act of 1975 Renamed Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (or IDEA) in 1997 Who is Eligible? Serves disabled individuals from 0-22 Part A serves ages 0-3 Part B serves ages 3-22 Each state defines what the eligibility criterion is for the specific disability
Speech of language impairments Other health impairments Orthopedic impairments Autism Emotionally disturbed Traumatic brain injury Specific learning disabilities EXCEPTIONAL STUDENT EDUCATION (ESE)
Valuing Diversity of ESE students Individualized Education Program (IEP) Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE) Least Restrictive Environment (LRE) Appropriate Assessment Related Services SECTION 504 History of 504 Services Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, an anti-discrimination statute Designed to protect individuals with disabilities by providing equal access to
facilities, programs, benefits, activities, or services that are provided to students without disabilities Who is Eligible? Covers all persons with a disability from discrimination in educational setting based solely on their disability Section 504 defines a person with a disability as: having a physical or mental impairments which limits one of more major life activity; have a record of such an impairment; or are regarded as having an impairment SECTION 504
Valuing Diversity of Section 504 students Requires schools to eliminate barriers that would prevent the student from fully participating in the programs and services offered in the general curriculum Provide the necessary accommodations for the 504 students to have a free appropriate public education (FAPE) in his or her least restrictive environment (LRE) KEY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ESE AND 504 ESE students 504 students
Protected under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 2004 Protected under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
Limited to a specific disability categories Not limited to specific disability categories ESE students may not be in all general education classes
504 students are part of the general education classes ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS (ELL) History of ELL services The state of Florida adopted a Consent Decree in 1990 to protects the civil rights of English Language Learners Provides a system for identification, appropriate instruction, inservice training for teachers, etc. ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS (ELL) Who is Eligible?
Every enrolling parent completes a home language survey which must include the following questions: Is a language other than English used in the home? Did the student have a first language other than English? Does the student most frequently speak a language other than English? Answer yes to any of the following questions, then the student is assessed to determine if he or she is limited English proficient (LEP) ENGLISH LANGUAGE LEARNERS (ELL) Valuing Diversity of ELL students
Six Sections of Meta Consent Decree, 1990 Section I. Identification and Assessment Section II. Equal Access to Appropriate Programming Section III. Equal Access to Appropriate Categorical and Other Programs to ELL Students Section IV. Personnel Section V. Monitoring Issues Section VI. Outcome Measurements VALUING SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES OF DIVERSE LEARNERS Know the demographics of your students through data Show interest in your students interests through an inventory
survey and use the results to build relationships with your students tailor lessons to spark their interest Plan lessons with the needs of all diverse students in mind, not an after thought Closing the Achievement Gap with the Multi-Tiered System of Support
Progress Monitoring with MTSS Vignette What Would You Do? Example of Tier 1, Tier 2, and Tier 3 Interventions Brainstorm Interventions WHAT IS MTSS? (MTSS incorporates The multi-tiered
instructional approach will serve as a basic decision-making and problem-solving tool before students are referred to special education (Campbell-Whatley, RTI) Floyd, OFarrow, & Smith, 2013, p125). M Multi
T Tiered S System of S Support Teacher who use the components with fidelity will improve their instruction and close the achievement gaps for students with identified needs in reading and math (Using a response to intervention, 2013, p 4) ESSENTIAL COMPONENTS
1. Implement effective instruction for all children 2. Intervene early 3. Provide multi-tiered model of instruction and intervention 4. Utilize a collaborative problem solving model 5. Assure research based core curriculum 6. Implement research-based, valid interventions and instruction 7. monitor progress to inform instruction 8. Use data to make instructional decisions 9. Use assessments for screening, diagnostics, and progress monitoring 10. Implement with fidelity 11. Engage parents and community. (Career and College Ready, 2013)
Vignette: What Would You Do? After reading the Vignette, discuss with your table group the four questions. Be prepared to share with the whole group. Reference:
Campbell-Whatley, G., Floyd, L.O., OFarrow, K., & Smith, C. (2013) Response to intervention and inclusion: facilitating collaborative arrangement. Leadership Practices for Special and General Educators. United States: Pearson Education. MTSS is made up of three Tiers of supports and strategies. LEVELS OF SUPPORT THE FOUR STEP PROCESS How Much additional time will be needed?
What will occur during that time? Who is the most qualified person to deliver the what? Where will that additional instruction occur? TIER I SUPPORT Core of Instruction or Behavior Interventions are High-Quality and ResearchBased In this tier, there is a universal screening to monitor students for progress.
Ways to Support Tier 1 Students: Differentiate instruction PBS (Positive Behavior Support) Identify the problem behavior through a FBA (Functional Behavior Assessment) Develop a hypothesis about why the behaviors are occurring Decide on an intervention that supports the appropriate interventions TIER II SUPPORT Supplemental Instruction integrated with Tier 1
component and performance expectation Ways to Support Tier 2 Students: Differentiated Instruction Modification Specialized Equipment TIER III SUPPORT Usually provided to individual students or students in small groups Development of instruction guided by the need of learners Ways to Support Tier 3 Students: More Instructional Time (In addition to those provided in Tier 1 and 2) Smaller Groups
More Systematic Instruction Sequences More feedback and more consistent feedback BRAINSTORM INTERVENTIONS With your table partners, brainstorm interventions that are already in place at your school that could be used for each tier of instruction, fitting the criteria. Tier 1 Tier 2 Tier 3 Consider this: How could interventions be adjusted to be proven more effective for students?
Using Diversity as an Asset with the Universal Design for Learning Explanation of UDL UDL Lesson Planning Example UDL Video Segment Example: Progress Monitoring HOW TO ENSURE MTSS IS IMPLEMENTED WITH
FIDELITY There needs to be a problem solving team that meets frequently oThe team should be made up of various personnel from the school oThe team should collaborate with members outside of the team The problem solving team will utilize a problem solving process to support services that Multiple forms of data should be assessed before deciding on necessary interventions. oThere should be a data system that is easy to use/ gather information. Interventions should align with district, school and classroom policies. Professional Development (MTSS Implementation Components, nd. p10)
UNIVERSAL DESIGN LESSONS Universal Design is the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design (OBrien, Aguinaga, and Knight, 2013 p150). Lessons created using UDL are meant to benefit students of all abilities, interests and backgrounds, which should make life easier (OBrien, Aguinaga, and Knight, 2013 p150). UNIVERSAL DESIGN LESSONS FOCUS ON THREE KEY COMPONENTS Multiple Means of Representation Multiple Means of Expression
Multiple Means of Engagement MULTIPLE MEANS OF REPRESENTATION In order to provide multiple means of representation, teachers can offer students a wide range of options for accessing academic content. EXAMPLES OF MULTIPLE MEANS OF REPRESENTATION Using an online versions of the text can allow for: changes in font size, color and visibility (for improved visibility)
Audio options vocabulary explanations and extensions supplemental materials, ie. videos, graphics, etc. that help to explain the materials in another way Practice exercises, sample quizzes and study guides. (OBrien, Aguinaga, and Knight, 2013 p156). MULTIPLE MEANS OF EXPRESSION Students are provided with multiple means to express what they know.
EXAMPLES OF MULTIPLE MEANS OF EXPRESSION This can be done through providing scaffolding at appropriate levels for practice and performance (OBrien, Aguinaga, and Knight, 2013 p156). Assistive technologies permit some students with the ways to express their understanding. Use multiple media for communication, construction & composition, Vary the methods of which students will respond to the lessons to show understanding: (multimedia) presentations, written accounts, performances, etc. MULTIPLE MEANS OF ENGAGEMENT Differentiated instruction can be used to provide students
with choices for interaction with the materials based on interest as well as skill level. (OBrien, Aguinaga, and Knight, 2013 p157). EXAMPLES OF MULTIPLE MEANS OF ENGAGEMENT Choosing which book to read surrounding a concept or theme Choosing which project to complete Write an essay Conduct an independent study
UDL Video Segment https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dTxF Yf50l-4&list=UUk-BxeAygzqGabYBs1TP IHQ UDL EXAMPLE OF PROGRESS MONITORING How might this type of progress monitoring prove that even though students were provided multiple means of representation, multiple means of expression, and multiple means of engagement, they still met the learning goal? How would the information gained from this lesson help to guide future lessons?
Construct a sample UDL lesson Reference: Williams, J., Evans, C., & King, L. (2011). The Impact of Universal Design for Learning Instruction on Lesson Planning. International Journal Of Learning, 18(4), 213-222. Diversity Professional Development MORNING BREAK (15 MIN)
Jigsaw Article with Table Groups Article: How Can Secondary Schools Avoid the Seven Deadly Sins of Inclusion Number yourselves 1-7 to divide the sections of the article Read your assigned section After reading, take notes using the graphic organizer
Read your assigned section of How Secondary Schools Can Avoid the Seven Deadly Sins of Inclusion. Based on your number, you will be reading a specific section. Section assignments are as follows: 1: Negative Teacher Perspectives 2: Lack of Knowledge Regarding Special Education Terminology, Issues and Laws
3: Poor Collaboration 4: Lack of Administrative Support 5: Limited Instructional Repertoire
6: Inappropriate Assessments 7: Conflicting scheduling and time management All like numbers (ie. all 1s) will meet at an assigned section of the room to go over section together. You can read the section together or independently, but will need to discuss your findings. In your group, you will complete the graphic organizer
Overcoming Barriers of Implementing the Inclusion Model (You do not need to do the summary questions at this time). When youre finished, transfer your responses to the chart paper provided. You will be presenting this to the whole group. JIGSAW ARTICLE: PRESENTATIONS As groups are presenting, fill in your chart with the information they provide. RETURN TO YOUR GROUPS With the information gained from the jigsaw activity
share-out, complete the summary questions together on the graphic organizer handout. Diversity Professional Development LUNCH BREAK (1 HOUR, 30 MIN) Appropriate Strategies for Maintaining a Respectful and Inclusive StudentCentered Learning
Environment Technology and Apps for LD Students Strategies to assess the implementation of modifications and accommodations TECHNOLOGIES AND APPS FOR LD STUDENTS Task management Next thing, iStudiez Pro Note taking with video and audio component InClass Organizing Ideas iThoughts, Corkulous, Popplet,
Studying Flashcards Deluxe, Annotating Goodreader, iAnnotate PDF, PDF Expert Password manager mSecure (Hatton & Hatton, 2014) RESOURCES FOR UDL There are some questions to ask before deciding to purchase any form of technology or assistance device Dr. Ron Pendleton (2005) suggests several questions that should be asked before purchasing materials. Answering these questions before purchasing materials will not only lead to informed decision making, but will assist in writing any proposal that you may need in order to get funding.
QUESTIONS TO ASK ABOUT RESOURCES Cost Is there enough money available to pay for what is needed? Is the price realistic and competitive? Durability Will the materials do what they need to do under the circumstances in which they will be used?
Are they sturdy enough to stand up under the circumstances in which they will be used? Some materials may become obsolete before they wear out so durability isn't always as obvious as it may appear. QUESTIONS TO ASK ABOUT RESOURCES (CONT.) Storage Is there adequate space available for storage? Is the storage space easy to access and secure? This may or may not be factor depending on the type of material and how that
material will be used. Context Is the material clearly written in a manner that can be easily understood by students and applied to the solution of problems presented and discussed in class? This, of course, refers primarily to written materials such as books, manuals, handouts, printed directions, etc., but don't forget that it is also a factor when considering audio-visual materials or any material that requires either written or spoken language used in conjunction with that material. QUESTIONS TO ASK ABOUT RESOURCES
(CONT.) Relevancy Is the material written or produced in such a way that it can be effectively related to the needs and interests of students? Level Is the material appropriate for the grade level and degree of development of the students? Format Is the material written or produced in a manner that will facilitate student learning? This is similar to context, but more specifically focused on the way that the material is organized and presented (how it actually looks).
QUESTIONS TO ASK ABOUT RESOURCES (CONT.) Content Is the material meaningful, accurate and free from bias? Although the concept of meaningful is somewhat addressed by context and relevancy, care must be taken to insure that the material selected will, in fact, effectively meet the needs of the students for whom it is intended. Recentcy
Is the material current? Who will it Assist? Is this material useful for one particular student, or could a large group of students benefit from its use? HOW WILL IT ASSIST IN THE STUDENTS SUCCESS? Why is this resource necessary? How much will it assist the student?
Will it be used in all classes? Content-Area Specific: ThinkPair-Share Strategies which Meet the Needs of Diverse Learners Research technology and assistive materials to assist diverse learners Complete the Chart: Assessing
Appropriate Materials List of potential resources will be provided to Administrative team IN YOUR DEPARTMENT GROUPS Using any resource at your disposal, (laptop, smartphone, etc.) research other technologies or assistive materials available to assist diverse learners. It may help to think of a specific student or group of students and his/her/their needs. Complete the Chart: Assessing Appropriate Materials for three of the materials you chose.
Make a decision if you would look into purchasing that material Building a Supportive School Culture Using Graphic Organizer: Supportive School Culture for Diverse Learners Consider what a non-supportive and a supportive school culture would look like and sound like
Then discuss the roles of those involved and the necessary strategies and procedures in a Supportive School Culture Graphic Organizer: Supportive School Culture for Diverse Learners (Page 1) Table Group Discussion: Sometimes the best way to determine what a school needs to embrace a supportive school
culture is to determine what it is by also considering what it is not. What would it look like? What would it sound like? Graphic Organizer: Supportive School
Culture for Diverse Learners (Page 2) Count off from 1-4 to divide the whole group. Consider the roles of all those involved and the necessary strategies and procedures to build a supportive school culture for diverse learners. Complete one box of Page 2 with your group and transfer to chart paper to present to the whole group.
Based on your number, you will meet with a collective group to discus and complete a specific section of the graphic organizer (page 2). Group assignments are as follows: 1: Professionals 2: Parents 3: Students 4: Multi-Tiered System of Support (MTSS) You will be transferring your information to chart paper to share with the whole group. GRAPHIC ORGANIZER: SUPPORTIVE SCHOOL
CULTURE FOR DIVERSE LEARNERS As groups are presenting the chart paper to the whole group, fill in your chart (page 2) with the information they provide. Faculty will meet quarterly throughout the year to discuss: Embracing Diversity School-wide Timeline
Success stories Overcoming struggles Suggestions for improvement HOW WELL DO YOU FEEL YOU ARE ABLE TO ADDRESS THE NEEDS OF DIVERSE LEARNERS? On a scale of 1-4 4 I could be teaching this professional development 3 I use new strategies often 2 I know some strategies 1 I dont feel well prepared
FOLLOW UP ACTIVITY By our next meeting Prepare a written account of two successful strategies youve implemented in your class. Include how you implemented them and any struggles you or the students had. Meet again quarterly to discuss success stories, overcoming struggles, and suggestions for improvement. REFERENCES
Campbell-Whatley, G., Floyd, L.O., OFarrow, K., & Smith, C. (2013) Response to intervention and inclusion: facilitating collaborative arrangement. Leadership Practices for Special and General Educators. United States: Pearson Education. Career and college ready: Mulit-tiered system of support. (2013). Michigan Department of Education. Retrieved from http://www.gomiem.org deBettencourt, L. U. (2002). Understanding the Differences Between IDEA and Section 504. Teaching Exceptional Children, 34(3), 16.
Florida department of education (n.d.). A parent and teachers guide to 504: Frequently asked questions. Retrieved March 11, 2014, from: http://www.fldoe.org/ese/pdf/504bro.pdf. Florida department of education (n.d.). Bureau of student achievement through language acquisition. Retrieved March 11, 2014, from: http://www.fldoe.org/aala/cdpage2.asp.
Hatton, D. &Hatton, K. (2014). Apps for students with LD: organization and study. The National Center for Learning Disabilities Inc. Retrieved from http://www.ncld.org/students-disabilities/assistive-technology-education/apps-students-ld-organization- study MTSS implementation components (n.d.) Floridas MTSS. Retrieved from www.florida-rti.org/educatorresources REFERENCES (CONTINUED) National dissemination center for children with disabilities. (n.d.). Resolving disputes between parents and schools. Retrieved March 11, 2014, from http://nichcy.org/schoolage/disputes
NCLD editorial staff. (2009, February 24). Section 504 and IDEA comparison chart. National center for learning disabilities. Retrieved March 14, 2014, from http://www.ncld.org/disability-advocacy/learn-ld-laws/adaaa-section-504/section-504-idea-comparison-chart OBrien, C., Aguinaga, N., and Knight, V. (2013) Leadership practices for special and general educators. United States: Pearson Education
Pendleton,R, (2005) Assessing instructional materials. Mozena Publications. Retrieved fromhttp://cte-ects.info/EVOC501DS/assess.html Response to instruction and intervention. (2014) Edina Public Schools. Retrieved from http:// www.edinaschools.org/domain/895 US department of education. (n.d.). Building the legacy: IDEA 2004. Retrieved March 11, 2014, from http://idea.ed.gov/static/modelForms
Using a response to intervention to improve student learning (.2013) American Institute for Research. Retrieved fromhttp://www.rti4success.org/resource/using-response-intervention-rti-framework-improve-student-learning
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