Police Staffing Presentation For the 2019 Ad Hoc Committee Mission Statement of the Lower Allen Township Police Department The Mission of the Lower Allen Township Police Department is to enforce the law, protect the public, reduce fear of crime, and ensure the quality of life in our community by working in partnership with the public and providing professional and responsible service. To perform our mission: We empower Department employees, businesses and citizens to operate in a Community Oriented Policing Concept We aggressively enforce laws and ordinances to provide our residents and others, who may be in the Township with a safe and secure environment
We vow to maintain, to the best our abilities, a zero tolerance towards any crimes involving violence, illegal drug dealing and/or use and driving after imbibing alcohol. We vow to ensure the Constitutional rights of persons we encounter. 1995: (28.5+ FTEs) 18 sworn 1 Chief, 1 LT, 2 Cpls (not part of patrol shifts), 2 Detectives, 12 patrol officers. Staffing History 11 Civilian staff (7.5+FTEs) plus CSOs
(2+ FTEs) 2 FT clerical/secretarial, 2 PT dayshift, 4+ PT evening shift Training CSO (near FT civilian) Technical Services (near FT civilian) Evidence Tech (FT civilian) 1 FT Mall CSO Dispatched Calls from County: 5300
2019: (28.5 FTEs) 22 sworn 1 Capt., 1 Lt., 1 Sgt Chief, 4 patrol Cpls (working patrol shifts), 1 CI Cpl, 2 Detectives, 12 patrol officers. 7 Civilian staff (6 FTEs) plus street Staffing History CSOs (1.5 FTE) 1 Director (less than 1/3 of time dedicated to PD)
1 Assistant to Director (again, about 1/3 of time to PD) 2 FT clerical/secretarial, 1 PT dayshift, 1 PT Compliance Specialist Evidence Tech (FT civilian) Calls for Service (dispatched and logs): 17448, a 229% increase in call volume. Staffing History vs. Dispatched Calls 1995-Present (Includes 2018) Staffing (18% increase
since 1995) 1995 -18 2017 22 Low 17 in 2000 High 22 in 2018 Dispatched Calls (229% increase since 1995) 1995 5300 (low) 2018 17448 (high) compensate for a 164% increase in dispatched calls? Leverage Technology (are reaching a
point where it is difficult to add something that justifies its own expenseLaw of Diminishing Returns) Less proactive work, including: How do we do it? random preventative patrols, selfinitiated traffic, addressing traffic and quality of life complaints. Less follow-up Less community engagement
O/T details paid for by Mall shifts some burden from street officers (2 nights/week) More non-patrol, administrative functions placed on command and support staff and off of patrol to allow patrol to handle calls. PSOs (account for less than 1 FTE, based on time dedicated to PD) CSOs (Hours added in 2019 now 78
Increased call volume, as a function of residential and commercial development Additional legal mandates, training and Current and Future Problem s certification requirements (Act 79, for example) Downward trend in what behavior is acceptable in society
Result: Gradual shift to a disproportionate amount of reactive police work Limited ability to work proactively to address community concerns, Limited discretionary enforcement activities, including traffic enforcement and attention to quality of life issues. Planned Development Projections (2016) Per the overall master plan 1106 residential units will be added by Arcona.
The occupants per household are 2.74, average throughout the township. Based on a 20-year build out, if construction is even (although one need only look to see that it is heavily front-loaded), there will be an increase of 56 households per year. Planned Development Projections The population increase per year is extrapolated, giving a predicted
population of approximately 19,253 in 2021. Planned Development Projections The number of patrol activities per citizen, in 2016 was .75 The result of the population increase is an increase of approximately 567 patrol activities form 2016-2021. Obligated Time vs Unobligated Time Obligated
Time on calls for service Transports Hearings Initial paperwork *obligated time should include breaks, 1 hour total, per officer, per shift. Unobligated Time Proactive Patrol Proactive Traffic Enforcement
Community Engagement Follow-ups on Criminal Cases IACP Ideal Ratio The IACP (International Association of Chiefs of Police) recommends that 1/3 of an officers time be spent on responding to and handling calls for service or other obligated duties. The remaining 2/3 should be dedicated to administrative activities and proactive duties. Thus, in accordance with industry
standards, we should have 20 minutes per hours in obligated time, 40 minutes unobligated. Our Current Ratio 2 Officer Minimum Staffing, 3 Officer Most Frequent Level, 4 Officer Full Staff 2021 Ratio With Current Staffing 2 Officer Minimum Staffing per Shift, 3 Officer Most Frequent Level, 4 Officer Full Staff 2021 Planned Staffing Goal (20 Patrol Officers) 3 Officer Minimum per Shift
5 Officer Full Shift Shift Relief Factor Shift Relief Factor: The number of actual staff required to fill a single patrol position, 365 days a year. This accounts for regular days off, leave, training, etc. This can vary by agency, depending on collective bargaining agreements, training levels, and other factors impacting actual time on the street. Lower Allens number is 2.6 based on available- for-work time of 1685 hours per officer, per year.
To virtually ensure 4 PATROL officers per shift (8 per day), 20.8 PATROL officers are needed. We have 16. No one model is absolute. We have used five in this analysis. Methodolo gy 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Simple Obligated Time Obligated Time Population Patrol Activities Projected Population and Patrol Activities based on current level of service/workload The total currently obligated hours, Simple Obligate d Time times 3 to get a 1:2 ratio of obligated
to unobligated time (33.3% obligated, 66.6% unobligated). In Lower Allen, the current workload results in 15358 obligated hours. Times 3 to get the total patrol time = 46075 Divide this by the number of hours an officer is on the street, annually (1685) Result: 27 PATROL officers. Based upon calculations from inputs
in the spreadsheet provided by the IACP Patrol Allocation and Deployment for Law Enforcement Managers Program Inputs included total patrol activities and Obligate d Time the time taken to perform those activities, resulting in a recommendation of 10.5 patrol officer on the street, per day. To fill those 10.5 spots, a shift relief factor (how many bodies does it take to staff one position, 365 days per year).
That number, as explained in an earlier slide, is 2.6. The recommendation based on this method is also 27 Population (Comparables) This method accounts for the population served by Lower Allen Officers, compared with similar surrounding agencies. Based on units (patrol officers) fielded per day, divided by how many thousand residence are served, a factor is developed. In comparing numbers and incorporating experience and known call loads, Hampden, with the larger population and similar call volume as Lower Allen, is understaffed. Upper Allen, by comparison, appears to be overstaffed.
If we split the difference between LA and UA, the factor is .51, resulting in a recommended fielding of 9.16 officers per day. 9.16 x the Shift Relief Factor (2.6), gives a total PATROL officer staff of 24. Patrol Activities This method accounts for the patrol activities performed by Lower Allen Officers, compared with similar surrounding agencies. Based on units (patrol officers) fielded per day, divided by how many thousand calls the agency fields, a factor is developed. By comparison, we are understaffed. If we go by the average of Upper Allen and Hampden, our factor is 1.
Using that factor, the recommended PATROL units to be fielded, per day, is 11.6, or 6 per shift. 11.6 x the Shift Relief Factor (2.6), gives a total PATROL officer staff of 30. Simple Obligated Time: 27 Conclusi on Summar y (Part 1) PATROL Officers Obligated Time: 27 PATROL
Officers Population: 24 PATROL Officers Patrol Activities : 30 PATROL Officers Average of methodologies: 27 PATROL OFFICERS But what about the last methodol ogy? Projected Population and Patrol
Activities based on current level of service/workload in order to MAINTAIN the current level of service and workload balance. This one is more complicated Some background information must be presented first. UCR CRIME Criminal Incidents (UCR Cases) have gone up 31% from the 2011 low.
These are the incidents that usually take the extra time at the beginning and require follow-up later. Criminal Arrests Criminal Arrests, in keeping with the UCR increase, also shows a 31% increase over the low during this period.
Patrol Activities With the projected population increase, and using the calculated average of .75 patrol activities per citizen, the rate of patrol activities over the coming years can be projected. Patrol Activities Per Officer Projection Assuming a steady rate of patrol activities (PA), the projected patrol activities, per officer, increases
from the current rate of 867 to 938 To keep the rate per officer the same, and maintain the current level of service, the number of PATROL OFFICERS needs to increase to 20 by 2021. (16 Currently) Current situation (2016 numbers) With 1 officer, there are -20 unobligated hours (impossible to sustain) With 2 officers (minimum staffing) there are 2 unobligated hours (dangerous to sustain)
With 3 officers, there are 25 unobligated hours (tight, but do-able, should not be sustained for long periods) With 4 officers (full shift), there are 48 unobligated hours for a 46:54 Obligated:Unobligated ratio, closer to ideal With 5 officers (ideal staffing) there are 71 unobligated hours, a slightly better than ideal 37:63 ratio. We do not have this staffing level. 2021 Projections Based on Staffing 1 officer: - 23 unobligated hours (would be irresponsible)
2 officers: zero unobligated hours (officer are taking reports and there is NO proactive activity or follow-up happening. Dangerous to try and likely impossible to sustain) 3 officers (proposed minimum staffing): 23 unobligated hours (dangerous to try to sustain, long term, but do-able in short bursts) 64:36 ratio Obl:Un 4 officers: 46 unobligated hours 48:52 ratio (tight, but doable IF staffing maintained, but you will see later just how often we have/do not have full staffing). 5 officers (proposed full shift): 69 unobligated hours. A very good 38:62 ratio but only if the WHOLE SHIFT is on duty. Training and leave usually preclude this. However, we can do this, as it closely approximates our current work rate..
6 officers (ideal staffing): 92 unobligated hours. 32:68 ratio 2026 Projections Based on Staffing 1 officer: -25 unobligated hours (would be irresponsible) 2 officers: -2 unobligated hours (officers are taking reports and there is NO proactive activity or follow-up happening. Dangerous to try and impossible to sustain) 3 officers (proposed minimum staffing): 21 unobligated hours (dangerous to try to sustain, long term, but doable in short bursts) 67:34 ratio Obl:Un 4 officers: 44 unobligated hours 50:50 ratio (tight, but do-able IF staffing maintained, but not long-term) 5 officers (proposed full shift): 67 unobligated hours. A
decent 40:60 ratio but only if the WHOLE SHIFT is on duty. Training and leave usually preclude this. 6 officers (ideal staffing): 90 unobligated hours. 33:67 ratio Conclusion (Part 2) Based on an extrapolation of the current workload, options for 2021 staffing can be projected To maintain the current work-rate, per officer, each platoon will need to consist of 5 officers, putting 20 PATROL officers on the street. We currently have 16. To maintain
equilibrium, 4 officers need to be hired by 2021. Understand that this maintains STAUS QUO. To get the work-rate, per officer, closer to the ideal ratio of 33/66 obligated/unobligated time, 6 officers per shift, or 24 PATROL officers are needed. This gets us to a 37:63 ratio. To get to recommended staffing levels and allow for all of the things that can be achieved with the proper amount of unobligated time, 8 patrol officers would need to be hired by 2021.
2026? As a word of warning, the population up-trend that will continue with the current planned development will result in a need for 6-officer platoons to maintain the current work-rate for a total of 24 patrol officers. 5 officer squads by this time will put us behind our current status as far as ability to handle workload.
Probability of Saturation What it means: This is the percent chance that when you call for an officer, they will be unavailable due to being on another call. Based on calls per hour, a conservatively calculated average of 80 staff minutes per call (current experience), and the number of officers on the street. 2021 Projections Chart Probability of Saturation
What level of service should be maintained/provided? As a citizen, I want a cop to come when I call. As an administrator, I want cops to be able to respond immediately, a vast majority of the time. An 87.2% chance that no one will be available is not desirable. Minimum staffing would need to increase to 3 to achieve a
36.62% chance that this would happen. To do this, each of the current 4 squads (4 officers each) need to expand to 5 officers per squad. Where are we now? (First 25 weeks of 2018) Minimum staffing is two 36% of shifts at full staffing 40% at 3 officers
21% at 2 officers 2% required shifting assets to ensure coverage Where are we now? (1/1/19-4/7/19) Minimum staffing is two 15.7% of shifts at full staffing 56.7% at 3 officers
27.6% at 2 officers What does this mean for the future? If we continue to maintain current staffing (2 officer minimum, 4 officer squads), in 2021 probability of saturation (POS) will be: 87.2% POS 21% of the time.
36.6% POS 40% of the time. 13.4% POS 36% of the time 4.3% NEVER this good. With the recommended 5-officer squads with a 3officer minimum: 4.3% POS 36% of the time 13.4% POS 40% of the time 36.6% POS 21% of the time 87.2% NEVER this bad.
Pros Financial Impact Cons Option: Maintain Current Staffing
Reduced to zero proactive work Agency becomes call-takers Lack of timely response Diminished capability to carry out the mission statement. Officers worked harder than similar agencies. Possible recruitment/retention issues. Con Option: Increase to 5officer
Squads by 2021 Financial Impact Pros Maintain current work-rates Maintain current level of response Provide for at least minimal proactive work. Maintain current capability to fulfill mission statement. Retention, recruitment negative impact reduced
Con Greatest Financial Impact Option: Increase to 6officer Squad by 2021 Pros Achieves ideal staffing ratios based on vetted research by the IACP. Ideal ability to divide time between what must be done and what CAN be
done. Positive impact on recruitment/retention Minimize response times Maximize effectiveness through proactive work. Summary and Recommendation As discussed in the Strategic Plan Workshops with the Board during 2018, demands for police service keep increasing. As Arcona development continues, and re-development
creates new opportunities, further increases in calls for service and required police activity will be needed. How do we assure sufficient staff to meet the service demand? POLICE DEPARTMENT GOAL 5-patrol officers per platoon by 2021 to cover the increased demand for services that currently exists, along with the anticipated demand with the projected growth. This gets police officer staffing to break-even levels on workload per officer by 2021. By 2026 the prognosis is more dismal.
As Arcona comes to completion and redevelopment continues, increases in staffing continue to be needed By 2026, the analysis indicates 8 additional officers would be required to maintain current service levels. At each level, this accomplishes a near-50/50, obligated/ unobligated rate. Wed need to add officers at double these rates to get into the 1/3 obligated, 2/3 unobligated that would be the ideal. Knowing that we wont get to there, we still need to plan accordingly with that 50/50 goal in mind, which means increasing staffing overall by 8 additional officers by 2026. CURRENT PLAN 5-PATROL Officer Squads by 2021
Requires one additional officer per squad added over 2-4 years Achieves balance between the hazards and service reduction of maintaining current staffing without creating the financial burden of rising to the level of staffing that the analysis recommends. Maintains the current level of service through 2021. Action Plan to Achieve the GOAL Two officers in 2019, one each in 2020 and 2021, each are July hires, impacting budget for year with each initial addition. Assuming an officer stays at the full time rate for 6 months, and that the average patrolmans benefit percent without OPEB
(Other Post Employment Benefits) remains at 52%, and without overtime, holiday call out, OIC, or other special pay, and without uniforms, training, equipment, etc. the fiscal impact of the options would be roughly $350,000* in the 2022 budget. IMPACT POTENTIAL Know that by current staffing models and anticipated growth, if our current minimum staffing of 2 PATROL officers per squad is still the same in 2021, there may be days where 5 hours worth of calls will not get answered in that day, compounding daily for each day of minimum staffing. In 2026, that number will be at 13 hours per day at our current 2 PATROL officer minimum level.
Questions? Thank you for your attention during this presentation NON-PRESENTATION SLIDES What follows are additional slides that were developed to present information in a different way. In many cases, they are more complex or present data in a manner that is not as cleanly presented in a PowerPoint. They have been placed here for your own education and information, should you wish to review them. Definitions Obligated Time (also Committed Time): that time spent actively responding to or engage in calls for service, including dispatched calls of emergency and nonemergency natures, preliminary investigations, prisoner
transports, or other activities of a nature that requires an officer or officers to be committed to the event and unavailable to perform other activities. Definitions (continued) Unobligated Time (also Uncommitted Time): That time not spent engaged in the time accounted for as obligated time. This is the time when proactive policing can happen. Follow up on criminal cases, working traffic (including in response to citizen complaints), neighborhood patrols, community engagement, training, visibility patrols, and any kind of proactive policing that one would expect or imagine is done during unobligated time. Shift Relief Factor
Shift Relief Factor: The number of actual staff required to fill a single patrol position, 365 days a year. This accounts for regular days off, leave, training, etc. This can vary by agency, depending on collective bargaining agreements, training levels, and other factors impacting actual time on the street. For Lower Allen, the SRF is 2.6. That number is arrived at by taking the average regularly scheduled days off (191.19), leave days (38.2), non-patrol days, including training, admin, and special assignment (20.4) and deducting that number from the total hours in a year that constitute a shift (365x12=4380), for a total available time per officer of 1668 hours. 4380 (the number of hours needed to be covered for a slot) divided by 1668 (the number of hours an employee is available to work those hours) equals 2.6 the number of physical employees needed to staff one patrol slot 365 days per year. Shift Relief Factor If Lower Allen wanted to staff 1 12-hour shift per day, every day, 2.6
officers are needed to do it. Any deficit is made up for by paying overtime. Lower Allen HAS a minimum staffing level that requires two officers per shift or four per day. To run such a department, 10.4 officers are required. We currently, on a full shift, run 4 per shift or 8 per day. To maintain this staffing level requires 20.8 patrol officers. We have 16. We compensate by running light (minimum staffing), paying overtime, and not engaging in the discretionary activities associated with unobligated time. 2016 Staffing/Committed Time Current 2 officer minimum Allows for 4.11 unobligated hours per day
4 of those are consumed by breaks (1 hr per officer working during min. staffing) 6.6 minutes in the day of unobligated time. 2021 Staffing/Committed Time At Current 2 officer minimum Allows for 2.32 unobligated hours per day
4 of those are consumed by breaks (1 hr per officer working during min. staffing) -1.68 hours per day, mitigated by skipping breaks and overtime, both situations to be avoided. 3 officer minimum at least gets us into positive time and give 20.3 hours, daily, that can be spent on the tasks associated with Unobligated Time Probability of Saturation How do they (IACP) calculate this number?
Agency data is entered into a calculator program that follows the formula to the right to determine the Probability of Saturation (POS) Option: Hire 1 Officer per Year Until Patrol Staffing Reaches 20 Pro Ultimately achieves the goals of the 5-officer squad and the attendant advantages. Cons We are already behind the curve. Study based on 2016 data puts us two years behind.
We will see a drop in service capabilities until we get back up to that staffing level. Schedule is complicated for a longer time: Overlap shifts and uneven coverage will prevail over the course of the next four years as opposed to the next 1.5 years. Overtime Cost of Maintaining Current Staff in 2021 To get 3 officers on a shift with current staffing: 21% of the time, we are at two officers. To make this 3, 450 shifts would have to be filled at a (low estimate) OT rate of $50/hr. The total annual cost of this overtime is $276,000. Because officers (in 2021) are working more in their off time, and less are
permitted to be off, training is denied, leave is denied, more court appearances on days off occur, breaks are cut, no relief, burnout, mistakes, health impact, increased sick leave use, more OT. This becomes a monster that feeds on itself with the only advantage being a bottom-line cost savings at a cost of exponential risk increase. What about detectives and administration? Various studies show that 2/3 of an agencys sworn staff should be working general patrol duties. The remaining 1/3 is divided among investigations and administration. This balance is necessary to ensure proper supervision and the capability to ensure that the most serious and/or complicated cases get their proper attention. We have 22 sworn, total. 6 are in non-patrol roles (3 admin, 3 detectives), putting us at 27%, less than the recommended ratio.
To shift detectives or administration to patrol, supervision suffers, major case investigation suffers, and the administrative duties that must be performed, many of them legally mandated, will suffer. This creates a dangerous, high-liability situation, the pathway to which would be discouraged in the most emphatic of terms. McNair and the DTF As a part-time DTF detective, approximately 60% of his regular workday was Lower Allen work, 40% DTF work. As full-time DTF detective, the ratio flip-flops. McNair is still doing about 40% Lower Allen-specific work (local case load, evidence duties, etc.). Full-time is a misnomer, but the designation increased the flexibility and capability of the DTF to tackle the cases that are plaguing the area, particularly with their prioritization on investigating drug delivery involving death cases. Pulling him back
creates no advantage in our staffing situation, as he is counted among the 27% admin/detectives noted in the previous slide. If we are short 4 officers in 2021, and McNair is returned, we gain 20% of his work back, resulting in 5% of our total problem being solved. The loss far outweighs the gain if brought back.
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