Plant Kingdom cont. - Jack Espinosa

Plant Kingdom cont. - Jack Espinosa

Plant Kingdom cont. WHAT'S A PLANT Plants are members of the kingdom plantae. Plants are photosynthetic multicellular eukaryotes - or PHOTOAUTOTROPHS. What about the venus flytrap?

Cell walls are made of CELLULOSE - the material that bacteria and protists in our small intestine digest for us. Cellulose is a kind of complex sugar or polysaccharide. Although cellulose plays an important role in structural support in the cell walls of plants, cellulose is found in other forms - such as cotton.

The green of plants comes from their photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a & b) LIFE CYCLE OF PLANTS The life cycle of plants has two different phases. This is called;

ALTERNATION OF GENERATIONS. In this alternation of generations, the plant takes turns undergoing mitosis and meiosis to produce haploid (n) and diploid (2n) gametes. The diploid (2n) phase is called the sporophyte - or spore producing plant. The haploid (n) phase is called the gametophyte or gamete producing plant.

The spores are haploid (n) and produced thru meiosis in the sporophyte plant - each spore can grow into a new plant; the gametophyte! A gamete is a reproductive cell produced by mitosis and fuses during fertilization with another gamete to produce a new individual the diploid sporophyte.


Plants didn't exist for most of the Earth's history. Life was mainly found in the oceans, lakes and streams. Only after photosynthetic prokaryotes (cyanobacteria) and algae put oxygen in the atmosphere, did the conditions on Earth become favorable for other forms of life to evolve and therefore, to move onto land.

The first plants are thought to have evolved from plantlike-protist, the green algae. "From these pioneers, several major groups of plants evolved." (Miller, 555) 1. Mosses and their relatives

2. The other lineage gave rise to all the other plants found today. Botanists divide plants into four major groups depending on three main characteristics: water-conducting tissue, seeds, & flowers. Plant cladogram

BRYOPHYTES "In the cool forests of the northern woods, the moist ground is carpeted with green. When you walk, this soft carpet feels spongy. Look closely and you will see the structure of this carpet mosses.

Mosses and their relatives are generally called bryophytes, or nonvascular plants. Unlike all other plants, these organisms do not have vascular tissues, or specialized tissues that conduct water and nutrients." (Levine, 556) Groups of bryophytes: mosses, liverworts, and hornworts

Mosses (bryophytes) Bryophytes SEEDLESS VASCULAR PLANTS Ferns, club mosses, and horsetails

Because bryophytes can only transport water from cell to cell, their height and overall size were limited to a few centimeters. Around 420 m.y.a., something remarkable happened. The little mosses were joined by plants that were up to a meter tall. The first vascular plants had a new type of cell that was specialized to conduct water. TRACHEIDS. This was a

revolutionary adaptation in the plant kingdom. These cells are key in xylem - a water transport system that carries water up the plant from the root. And phloem - which transports solutions of nutrients and carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis. Club mosses (bryophytes)

FERNS SEED PLANTS: Gymnosperms (cones) & Angiosperms (flowering plants) "Whether they are acorns, pine nuts, dandelion seeds, or kernels of corn, seeds can be found everywhere. Seeds are so common that their importance may be overlooked. Over millions of years, plants

with a single trait - the ability to form seeds - became the most dominant group of photosynthetic organisms on land." (Levine, 564) REPRODUCTION FREE FROM WATER Like all plants, seed plants have an alteration of generation life

cycle. Unlike mosses and ferns, seed plants do not need water for fertilization of gametes. Adaptations that allow plants to reproduce without water are flowers and cones.

Pollen: male gametophyte / Seed: embryo of a living plant that is encased in a protective covering and surrounded by food. GYMNOSPERMS - CONE BEARERS These are the most ancient surviving seed plant. This group includes the gnetophytes, cycads, ginkgoes, and conifers. These plants all reproduce with seeds that

are exposed - gymnosperm means naked seed. Gnetophytes: about 70 present day species exist. Gnetophytes Cycads

Cycads: beautiful palm-like plant that reproduce with large cones. Huge forests of cycads thrived when dinosaurs roamed Earth. Today only nine genera exist. Cycads Ginkgoes These plants were common when the

dinosaurs existed, but today there is only one species left. Carefully cultivated in China. Gynkgo (living fossil) Conifers Conifers: more than 500 known species.

This group includes the pines, spruces, firs, cedars, sequoias, redwoods, junipers, and yews. Some conifers like the bristlecone, can live for up to 4000 years. Other species like the giant redwoods, can grow to more than 100 meters in height. Most conifers are evergreens that is, they retain their leaves throughout the year. Coniferous forest

ANGIOSPERMS - FLOWERING PLANTS "...First appeared about 135 m.y.a... Angiosperms develop unique reproductive organs known as flowers. In general, flowers are an evolutionary advantage to plants because they attract animals such as bees, moths, or hummingbirds, which then transport pollen from flower to flower. This is much more efficient than the wind

pollination of gymnosperms." (Levine, 569) Flowers contain ovaries which surround and protect the seeds. The presence of an ovary gives angiosperms their name which mean enclosed seed.

The unique angiosperm fruit - a wall of tissue surrounding the seed - is another reason for the success of these plants. Why? Diversity of plants today DIVERSITY: MONOCOTS & DICOTS (number of seed leaves - cotyledons - in plant embryo) A cotyledon is the first leaf or the first pair

of leaves produced by the embryo of a seed plant. There are other differences. What are they? WOODY vs. HERBACEOUS ANNUALS (completion of one life cycle in one season) ~ wheat BIENNIALS (completion of one life cycle in

two seasons) ~ parsley & celery PERENIALS (live for more than two years) ~ asparagus, grasses, palms, maple trees. The End

Recently Viewed Presentations


    iChain® 2.3 troubleshooting tools and tips Neil Cashell iChain WWS engineer Novell, Inc. [email protected] The one Net vision The one Net vision Presentation Outline General iChain® 2.3 troubleshooting tools New iChain components (proxy authentication, Citrix SSO, OLAC, Rewriter, WebDAV, Xtier)...
  • Impact de la chimiothérapie sur la fonction ovarienne: que faire?

    Impact de la chimiothérapie sur la fonction ovarienne: que faire?

    Maturation 24 à 48h Technique de congélation lente Résultats (série de Clamart) ? 60 patientes par an (OPK), taux grossesse 27% Cohorte de 50 enfants très suivis : pas d'augmentation du taux de malformations Technique semblant prometteuse….
  • Journal #34:

    Journal #34:

    Students will be able to define and identify oxymoron and antithesis in . Romeo and Juliet. ... Iambic: second syllable is more important (but soft what light through yonder window breaks) (to be or not to be that is the...
  • Presentation Title Goes Here - Our Mission

    Presentation Title Goes Here - Our Mission

    Cheminformatics for Computational Chemistry and Computer-Aided Molecular Discovery R. S. Pearlman1, Y. Wu1, K. M. Smith2, and B. B. Masek2 1 Laboratory for the Development of CADD Software, College of Pharmacy, University of Texas, Austin TX
  • Integrating Learning to Learn in the General Science

    Integrating Learning to Learn in the General Science

    In Two Classes Questioning in Lecture Lecture Preparation Three-Column Table Questioning Guide Active Learning in Lecture Personal Response System(s) Lecture Preparation Three-Column Table Habituate student to the questioning process Weekly Five weeks Question Guide Develop the facility to question deeply...
  • Center For Student Involvement

    Center For Student Involvement

    SAC Grant Process. Attend mandatory grant training. Apply for grants online - via PantherSync. Attend grant weekend and be prepared to discuss your grant
  • Structural Steel Design Is : 800 - 2007

    Structural Steel Design Is : 800 - 2007

    reaction load due to beam is 500 kN at an eccentricity of 100 mm from major axis of section. DESIGN Column is subjected to axial compression of 5 X 105 N with bending moment of 50 X 106 Nmm. Taking...
  • Basic Cost Terms and Concepts - Washburn University

    Basic Cost Terms and Concepts - Washburn University

    Explain cost terms and classifications for financial reporting: period vs. product cost. Describe the components of product cost. Calculate 'cost of goods manufactured' and 'cost of goods sold' for a manufacturing entity