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filename: 11-19-0698-01-AoD in Passive Ranging.pptx AoD in Passive Ranging Date: 2019-05-01 Authors: Name Affiliations Qi Wang Apple, Inc. [email protected] Tianyu Wu Apple, Inc. [email protected]

Submission Address Phone Slide 1 Email Qi Wang, Tianyu Wu, Apple, Inc. filename: 11-19-0698-01-AoD in Passive Ranging.pptx Background Passive ranging is currently specified in 802.11az_D1.0 [1]. A pair of STAs perform TB ranging to enable client STAs to passively locate themselves using TDOA. In this submission, Anchor STAs (ASTAs) refer to the STAs that execute the TB ranging protocol to enable passive ranging.

Submission Slide 2 Qi Wang, Tianyu Wu, Apple, Inc. filename: 11-19-0698-01-AoD in Passive Ranging.pptx Benefits of AoD for Passive Ranging AoD can resolve STAs location combined with other AoD measurements or ranging measurements from various anchor stations Angle of departure can be estimated based on spatial diversity (when spatial diversity is exploited) Enabling AoD in passive scan can: Reduce the necessary number of anchor stations to achieve certain locations accuracy And/or improve accuracy for a given number of anchor stations

Submission Slide 3 Qi Wang, Tianyu Wu, Apple, Inc. filename: 11-19-0698-01-AoD in Passive Ranging.pptx Reduction in Number of ASTAs ASTA 1 ASTA 2 Angle ASTA 2 ASTA 3 Angle PSTA

ASTA 1 PSTA TDOA only: Minimum number of ASTAs = 3 (i.e., 3 pairs of ASTAs) Submission TDOA + AoD or AoD_only: Minimum number of ASTAs = 2 (i.e., 1 pair of ASTAs) Slide 4 Qi Wang, Tianyu Wu, Apple, Inc. filename: 11-19-0698-01-AoD in Passive Ranging.pptx

Estimating Angle Of Departure To estimate AoD out of a transmitted NDP with multiple spatial streams, a few parameters needs to be known: Transmitters antenna placement: This can be resolved using survey methods (similar to RSSI fingerprints methods used today) Per RF chain phase difference of the transmitting signal Per chain phase difference is determined by P matrix, CSD matrix, spatial mapping matrix Q and per chain phase offset matrix D of the transmitter. P matrix and CSD matrix are defined in the spec and known at Tx and Rx Since no beamforming in ranging NDP, Q matrix should be predefined and known at both Tx and Rx side. May need some clarification in the spec. Per chain phase offset: Oscillator for each RF chain may have a different constant phase rotation added to the per chain signal. This constant phase also come from different delay per chain. These phase values are typically very stable but not known at both Tx side and Rx side. Submission Slide 5

Qi Wang, Tianyu Wu, Apple, Inc. filename: 11-19-0698-01-AoD in Passive Ranging.pptx HE-LTF Symbol Generation Frequency domain Tx signal of nth HE-LTF symbol and subcarrier k is: To resolve the AoD from Ntx antenna port, Nsts = Ntx. Rx need to find out the original per chain phase difference of Tx signal The key problem is to define Q matrix and handle D matrix. Submission Slide 6 . Qi Wang, Tianyu Wu, Apple, Inc. filename: 11-19-0698-01-AoD in Passive Ranging.pptx

Discussion on Spatial Mapping Matrix In 11az, its specified that No beamforming steering matrix is applied to the waveform May need to clarify: If N_STS = N_Tx, there is no Q matrix (Or Q matrix is an Identity matrix) If N_STS < N_Tx, Q matrix is , only using first N_STS antennas. To support AoD, one of the simple implementation is antenna switching where n-th symbol only send on n-th antenna port. In this case, for n-th symbol, only n-th row of Q matrix have non-zero elements or even only Qnn is non-zero. There is also no beamforming in this case. Should it be considered as the spatial mapping matrix when AoD is supported to simplify the implementation? Submission Slide 7 Qi Wang, Tianyu Wu, Apple, Inc.

filename: 11-19-0698-01-AoD in Passive Ranging.pptx Discussion On Per Chain Phase Offset Matrix Option 1: ASTA send out the D matrix ASTA estimate the D matrix (could be challenging for ASTA) ASTA quantize the D matrix and send it out before passive ranging session. May suffer from overhead and some quantization error. Option 2: ASTA compensate for the D matrix ASTA estimate the D matrix ASTA compensate the D matrix. ASTA supporting AoD need to guarantee the D matrix is compensated. Option 3: Obtaining D matrix information using survey method similar to transmitter antenna placement information. Save the trouble for ASTAs to support AoD. D matrix can be obtained together with ASTA antenna placement information. Assumption is D matrix is a constant matrix. Submission

Slide 8 Qi Wang, Tianyu Wu, Apple, Inc. filename: 11-19-0698-01-AoD in Passive Ranging.pptx Proposal Overview We propose to Clarify the Q matrix for HE-LTF Properly handle the D matrix with one of the options provided in last slide for ASTAs supporting AoD measurement. Benefits: Enhance location accuracy by obtaining more measurements AoD measurements can be used in addition to TDOA measurements by the client STAs. Allow a client STA to achieve passive ranging with a reduced number of ASTAs.

Submission Slide 9 Qi Wang, Tianyu Wu, Apple, Inc. filename: 11-19-0698-01-AoD in Passive Ranging.pptx Proposed Client STA Behavior Implementation and use of AoD at PSTA is optional. A PSTA can use an implementation specific method to determine when/whether to use AoD. Using the information announced by each anchor station, the client can process the measurement frames (i.e., NDPs) and estimates the differential phase over the line-of-sight reflection between the different Tx antennas Client can leverage this information using following methods: The client can use a precursory area survey to implement finger

printing location techniques The client can use a precursory area survey to estimate the antenna locations and conduct AoD estimation Submission Slide 10 Qi Wang, Tianyu Wu, Apple, Inc. filename: 11-19-0698-01-AoD in Passive Ranging.pptx Proposed Client STA Behavior When processing the differential phase data to location estimation the client can: Either combines the differential phase measurement results with the timestamps (t1, t2, t3, t4, t5, and t6) to compute its location, Or, conduct the differential phase measurement with multiple ASTAs and use the AoD measurement results alone (without using the timestamps) to compute its location.

Submission Slide 11 Qi Wang, Tianyu Wu, Apple, Inc. filename: 11-19-0698-01-AoD in Passive Ranging.pptx Discussions: Multipath Impact Multipath reduces the accuracy of directional measurement. However, this is also true for ToF . Apples experiences indicate that, in most scenarios, joint estimation of timestamps and directional results improve the robustness against the multi-path impact. Submission Slide 12 Qi Wang, Tianyu Wu, Apple,

Inc. filename: 11-19-0698-01-AoD in Passive Ranging.pptx Summary For passive ranging, methods to enable AoD measurement by client STAs are proposed. The proposed methods enhance ranging accuracy and allow client STAs to achieve passive ranging with a reduced number of anchor STAs. Submission Slide 13 Qi Wang, Tianyu Wu, Apple, Inc. filename: 11-19-0698-01-AoD in Passive Ranging.pptx Straw Poll 1

Do you support to enable AoD measurement at client STAs for passive ranging? Results: Yes: No: Submission Abstain: Slide 14 Qi Wang, Tianyu Wu, Apple, Inc. filename: 11-19-0698-01-AoD in Passive Ranging.pptx Straw Poll 2 Do you support to enable AoD measurement at client STAs for passive ranging using the methods described in this document? Result:

Yes: No: Submission Abstain: Slide 15 Qi Wang, Tianyu Wu, Apple, Inc. filename: 11-19-0698-01-AoD in Passive Ranging.pptx References [1] IEEE Draft P802.11az_D1.0 - Draft Standard for Information Technology Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems Local and Metropolitan Area Networks - Specific Requirements Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications - Amendment 8: Enhancements for Positioning [2] IEEE Std 802.11-2016 (Revision of IEEE Std 802.11-2012) - IEEE Standard for Information technologyTelecommunications and information exchange between systems Local and metropolitan area networksSpecific requirements - Part 11:

Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications [3] IEEE Draft P802.11ax_D3.2 - Draft Standard for Information Technology Telecommunications and Information Exchange Between Systems Local and Metropolitan Area Networks - Specific Requirements Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications - Amendment 1: Enhancements for High Efficiency WLAN Submission Slide 16 Qi Wang, Tianyu Wu, Apple, Inc. filename: 11-19-0698-01-AoD in Passive Ranging.pptx Appendix: Lab experiment results Experiments measurement result for AoA. AoD results is expected to be similar. Experiment Settings: 80MHz transmission transmitter from a single antenna

Receiver with 2 antennas, antenna spacing = 0.5 wavelength Scenarios: Anechoic Chamber Conference room Test 1 LOS Conference room Test 2 NLOS Submission Slide 17 Qi Wang, Tianyu Wu, Apple, Inc. filename: 11-19-0698-01-AoD in Passive Ranging.pptx Anechoic Chamber Two units placed at a fixed distance of 2.5m One unit turns around its own axis Submission

Slide 18 Qi Wang, Tianyu Wu, Apple, Inc. filename: 11-19-0698-01-AoD in Passive Ranging.pptx Conference Room Test 1 Place one unit 60cm from a large reflector (metal board) Change second devices location in the room Constant range of 3m. Submission Slide 19 Qi Wang, Tianyu Wu, Apple, Inc. filename: 11-19-0698-01-AoD in Passive Ranging.pptx

Conference room Test 2 Two units placed at a fixed distance to the reflector (1.8m) Use different material to block LOS Wood plate Speag material Human Submission Slide 20 Qi Wang, Tianyu Wu, Apple, Inc.

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