Pantry Moths

Pantry Moths

Integrated Pest Management for Retail Foodservice Central Atlantic States Assn. of Food & Drug Officials Virginia Beach April 22, 2015 Pennsylvania Integrated Pest Management Program 215-264-0582 Email: [email protected] Website: Disclaimers Products, vendors, or commercial services mentioned or pictured in the trainings or presentations are for illustrative purposes only and are not meant to be endorsements. Medical concerns must be addressed by a medical

professional. Do not take legal action based on this presentation; consult a lawyer. By the end of the session, you will know: Why pests are a health problem Why IPM is the most effective way to control pests Pests are problems because Cause health problems Trigger/cause asthma and allergies Transmit disease

Contaminate food Destroy property Hitchhike & hide Cause people to misuse pesticides Acute pesticide exposure Chronic pesticide exposure Violate health codes Conventional treatment can be problem Pesticides are toxic they kill pests They can affect us! Must not get in or on food contact surfaces

Pests poisoned by pesticides must not contact food or food contact surfaces Pesticides may only be applied in foodservice by a licensed Pest Management Professional Improperly used pesticides can affect staff, customers, and the general public. Doesnt address the basic question Why are the pests present? Remove those conditions! What do pests want? The Pest Triangle: Food

Water Harborage Someplace to hide & nest Ideally warm What are the problems with pests? Pests are a problem They are disgusting People dont want them Especially customers

Pests damage health Of our workers Of our customers Of our business Violate Health & Food Codes U.S. Food and Drug Administrations Dirty 22 22 most common pests the agency recognizes in contributing to spreading foodborne pathogens German cockroach Holarctic blue bottle fly Brown band cockroach

Oriental latrine fly Oriental cockroach Secondary screw worm American cockroach Blue bottle fly Pharaoh ant Green bottle fly Thief ant

Black blow fly House fly Red-tailed flesh fly Stable fly House mouse Little house fly Polynesian rat Latrine fly

Norway rat Cosmopolitan blue bottle fly Roof rat (Jones et al. 2013 J. Food Prot. 76:144-149) Health Effects of Pests Cockroaches Allergens Flies Shigella Mice

LCMV Rats Leptospirosis Birds Salmonella Bats Histoplamosis Mouse plague, South Australia, 1993, 2010, 2011 Mouse Plague, Australia 2011 (2 min video) Cockroaches & their Pathogens:

Escherichia coli (6,7) Enterobacter spp. (6,8,9) Klebsiella spp. (6,7,9) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6, 9) Acinetobacter baumannii (2), Other nonfermentative bacteria (7,9) Parasites and their cysts (6)

Serratia marcescens (7,9) Shigella spp. (6) Staphylococcus aureus (6,7) Group A streptococci (6,7,9) Enterococcus spp. (6,7) Bacillus spp. (7) Various fungi (68) (Ukay I, et al 2009) Cockroach allergens

Cockroaches & Mice: #1 urban asthmagens Very potent Persistent Asthma is #1 cause of lost schooldays and workdays! Western Chicken Producer Salmonella outbreaks 2013 & 14; 800+ Cases Mold growth, cockroaches, an instance of pooling caused by a skin-clogged floor drain, fecal matter and Unidentified Foreign

Material (which has it own acronym, UFM) on chicken carcasses NRDC, citing FSIS Noncompliance Reports Pathogens from Ants Hospitals only Salmonella spp. Pseudomonas ruginosa Staphylococcus spp. Streptococcus spp. Clostridium spp. (Beatson 1972)

Pathogens from Filth Flies Over 100 different pathogens known (Armed Forces Pest Management Board 2011) Maggots at SF Grocery Maggots Found in Meat Case at San Francisco Market By News Desk | May 6, 2014 Maggots were recently found inside a meat case at a Market in San Francisco, and, while the store reportedly cleaned out the case at least three times, the local health department ordered a more thorough cleaning of all floor sinks and drains. A employee at the Noe Valley store initially said that he saw more than 40 maggots in the meat case after a customer complained; however, the store then reportedly told health officials that only one dead maggot had been found and

not in contact with any of the meat. While officials with the San Francisco Health Department noted that public health was never at risk, they reportedly criticized the grocer for not acting fast enough to fix the problem. They later gave the stores meat department a clean bill of health. Food Safety News Pathogens associated with pigeons Mycotic (molds) from dried feces

Aspergillis Candidia Cryptococcous Histoplasmosis Bacterial Salmonella Yersina

Protozoan Toxoplasmosis Virial West Nile Parasites Tapeworms Bird mites Also: Sparrows & Starlings Peanut Corporation of America 2008: $25 m revenue; 90 workers

2008-9: Photo taken by lawyer inspecting plant, 4/23/2009 Plants had holes in roof; pigeons in building (rodents & cockroaches too) 714 Illnesses in 46 states; 50% children Most complex recall in history: 361 companies manufacturing 3,913 products Bankrupt - 2009 Criminal proceedings ongoing President guilty on 67 of 76 counts

Franchise vs. NYC Rats (2007) Google Search: About 150,000 results Diseases directly transmitted by rodents

Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (Lassa Fever - Africa) Leptospirosis Lymphocytic Chorio-meningitis Virus (LCMV) (Omsk Hemorrhagic Fever - Siberia) Plague Rat-Bite Fever Salmonellosis (South American Arenaviruses) Tularemia n=11 Diseases indirectly transmitted by rodents

Babesiosis California Serogroup Viruses Colorado Tick Fever Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Human Granulocytic Anaplasmosis Lyme Disease Murine Typhus Omsk Hemorrhagic Fever

Powassan Encephalitis Scrub Typhus Rickettsial Pox Relapsing Fever Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever Sylvatic Typhus Western Equine Encephalitis n = 15 Baltimore rats Probably worlds best studied rats Studied in the 1940s

More studies in 50s Easterbrook, et al, 2004 Ongoing, G Glass, et al Photo: D Lerman Baltimore rat rates Prevalence of zoonotic pathogens in Norway rats from Baltimore, Maryland, USA 20052006 Human seropositive Human seropositive prevalance, Baltimore prevalance, Los (%) Angeles (%) Number of rats positive

Zoonotic pathogen Disease Calodium hepatica Round worms 87.9 176 rare nd

Hepatitis E virus Hepatitis E 73.5 144 21.3 similar Leptospirisis > > Leptospira interrogans Weils Disease 63.5

124 16 31* Seoul virus 57.7 116 0.25 - 0.74 0.5

34.1 63 33 nd 34 55 nd nd

7 14 nd (rat) 25.9 0 0 4.7 N= 201

nd=no data Hantavirus (HFRS) Bartonella elizabethae Cat Scratch Disease Hymenolepis sp. Tapeworms Rickettsia typhi Murine typus Prevalence (%)

Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus LCMV after Easterbrook, et al. 2007, incorporating data from other studies. * Detroit Say what??? Major human pathogens Just the ones easy to screen for (!) Amazing numbers Rats are everywhere their pathogens are

too Pathogens in Wild Rats, NYC 2012 Wild rats trapped & tested n=133, indoor; >70% sub-adult Live close to people Pass disease easily: Zoonotic Escherichia coli (EPEC) detected in 38% of rats

Bartonella spp. (25%) Streptobacillus moniliformis (17%) Yersinia pestis detected High viral diversity in commensal Norway rats in NYC up to 9 per rat! Some similar to Hepatitis (Frith et al 2014) Using Integrated Pest Management in Foodservice How do we control pests? Prevention Identification

Exclusion & Denial Sanitation Food & Water Physical controls Chemical controls Ongoing monitoring Integrated Pest Management

Preferred in foodservice Use many tools Control conditions Least risk to susceptible populations & to the environment Economic sustainability Make sure its working Essential Ingredients of IPM 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Pest Identification Action Thresholds Inspections/Monitoring Multiple control tactics Communication A team approach Different Pests different habits Fruit fly Blow fly Horse fly Drain fly

Inspections: The backbone of IPM Goes beyond sanitation and disinfection Looks for critical things pests need to survive. 1. Food 2. Water 3. Harborage The pest triangle Inspection: Basic Tools Monitoring Using traps to detect pest presence for identification & treatment

An insect on a sticky monitor is not a violation; an untreated colony is! Date & check monitors! Difference between monitoring and sampling Sampling observing and recording pest presence or numbers Monitoring sampling over time to observe trends and changes in pest activity ongoing. Interior Hallway that leads to exterior back dock door Refrigerator s

Dishwashin g area Food storage Inspections are hard work Inspection Report Identifies sanitation needs Looks for pest entryways, signs of active infestation and damage Findings are recorded Provides a history of pest activity

Ensures supervisors are aware of problems Serves as a checklist for inspector LOOK, dont check! Action thresholds Thresholds mark the boundary between controlled and unacceptable pest levels. Different thresholds may trigger different responses: Increased frequency of inspection Informal or formal training of staff Bait stations or traps Crack & crevice treatment Pull and deep clean equipment

Pesticides are not the only option Pesticide concerns Pests can become tolerant of or avoid pesticides. If misused, pesticides may be poisonous to people, pets, and wildlife. Long term exposure to residues may be undesirable Effects in combination are largely unknown The IPM Pyramid Pesticides Biological

controls Physical / Mechanical controls Design / Sanitation Practices Teamwork makes IPM work IPM is people oriented Communication skills essential Education is the most often overlooked IPM

tactic Use short, clear sentences Give practical directions Avoid jargon Pest Prevention The single most important part of a pest management program Pest-proofing, repair and

maintenance of buildings Dont Wait to Clean! Prevention through design Walls & floors Doors, closers & sweeps Ceilings Penetrations, chases & risers Waste handling & disposal Landscaping Lighting Project led by Chris Geiger, San Francisco Department of the Environment IPM & Green Purchasing Program, with expert panel. Funding provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Physical & Mechanical Controls Traps Lights Screens Vacuuming

Replacing seals Prevention & Control: Sanitation Remove food crumbs & litter Waste removal & storage Removal of allergens Roach frass Rodent feces & urine Use Environmentally Preferable Products Brown banded cockroaches by a door hinge

FOG Fats, Oils & Grease FOG is a mess! Attracts pests Attracts sanitarians & fines! Odors Clogs drains & vents Pest food Expensive to repair Clean drains Plates screen? Brushes carefully: listeria risk! Enzyme

Clean hoods Why is it important to use Environmentally Preferable Products? A single janitorial worker uses 194234 lbs. of chemicals annually, ~ 25% of which are hazardous substances Janitorial workers experience one of the highest rates of occupational asthma Six out of 100 janitors are injured each year 20% are serious burns to the eyes or skin 12% are a result of chemical fumes

Environmentally Preferable Cleaning Chemicals Less-toxic chemicals are readily available through most manufacturers and distributors Third-party certification of institutional cleaning products is important to ensure quality Common third-party programs are: Design for the Environment EPA Green Seal (GS) US EcoLogo ; formerly Environmental Choice (EC) Canada Are Disinfectants Pesticides? Yes! Are formulated to kill

organisms Can be toxic to humans as well as microbes Require special handling! Follow directions do not use higher concentrations than recommended! Biological Controls Use of living organisms Parasitic Insects Predators Nematode Enzymatic & microbial scum

digesters Pesticide controls Used as last line of defense Targeted to pest organism Herbicides (weed control) Insecticides (insect control) Fungicides (fungus control) Rodenticides (rodent control) Choose formulation to avoid exposure Used according to the label Applied only by a licensed PCO Harmful Effects of Pesticides

Caused by Excess Exposure Acute Effects: Harmful or fatal if swallowed or inhaled. Delayed Effects: Show hours or days after exposure Chronic Effects: Tumors, cancer, birth defects, blood and nervous system disorders. Allergic Effects: Asthma and skin, eye and nose irritation. Why adopt IPM? Because it is the right thing to do and

it works! Remember IPM Prevent pest populations. Take away their food, water & shelter! Deny Access & exclude pests Seal all openings and crevices Allow pesticides only as needed. Only Pest Management

Professionals apply pesticides! Sources Primary info & imagery: CDC sites, as noted Ukay I, Sax H, Di Pietro SL, Baur H, Boulch M-F, Akakpo C, et al. Cockroaches (Ectobius vittiventris) in an intensive care unit, Switzerland [letter]. Emerging Infectious Disease 2009 Mar [10/27/2014]. Available from DOI: 10.3201/eid1503.071484

A survey of zoonotic pathogens carried by Norway rats in Baltimore, Maryland, USA, JD Easterbrook, et al., 2007 Rodent Control: A Practical Guide for Pest Management Professionals, RM Corrigan, 2001; Rodent Academy, RM Corrigan, 2007 NY IPM Program, Acknowledgements This presentation was originally supported by funds from US EPA, PRIA 2 Grant Agreement X8-83445501

Sources for this presentation include: Integrated Pest Management for Multi-Family Housing, prepared by the Northeastern IPM Center for HUD, and distributed by the National Center for Healthy Housing. IPM for Sanitarians presentation by Dr. Nancy Crider, Texas Public Health Training Center, 2009. Food Safety Management Systems, Dion Lerman, 2006. Their contributions are gratefully acknowledged. A bibliography of references is available. Dion Lerman, HHS Pennsylvania Integrated Pest Management (PA IPM) Program 215-264-0582 Penn State Center Philadelphia

675 Sansom Street Philadelphia, PA 19102 [email protected]

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