Objective: To examine the events leading to the end of the war.
Victory in Asia Election of 1944 FDR won an unprecedented fourth term in office in 1944 However, in April of
1945, FDR died, forcing Vice-President Harry Truman to assume the Presidency. Harry S Truman taking the oath of office after
the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt, April 12, 1945. The following day, Truman spoke to reporters and said, "...I don't know whether you fellows ever had a
load of hay fall on you, but when they told me yesterday what had happened, I felt like the moon, the stars, and all the planets had fallen on me."
Island Hopping in the Pacific The two main goals of the U.S. in the Pacific were: I. to regain the Philippines. II. to invade Japan. The U.S. began a policy of
island hopping, using islands as stepping-stones towards Japan. Mount Suribachi The fighting on Iwo Jima and Okinawa displayed continued Japanese resistance. The two battles proved
that the Japanese would not surrender and the atomic bomb must be used. By February of 1945, the U.S. had recaptured the Philippines and captured the islands of Iwo Jima and Okinawa. Raising the Flag on Iwo
Jima depicts five United States Marines and a U.S. Navy corpsman raising the
flag of the United States atop Mount Suribachi during the Battle of Iwo Jima.
1st flag on Iwo Jima The photograph became the only photograph to win the Pulitzer Prize in the same year as its publication, and ultimately came to be regarded as one of the most significant
and recognizable images of the war, and possibly the most reproduced photograph of all time. The Japanese continued to fight, oftentimes using kamikaze attacks against U.S. ships. VIDEO .Yoshinori Yamaguchi's plane explodes in a ball of fire.
USS Essex, November 25, 1944 Damage to Essex flight deck. Burial at sea after the Kamikaze
attack. Sixteen men lost their lives as a result of this action. Defeat of Japan The U.S. planned to invade Japan in 1945, though experts
warned that the invasion could cost over a million casualties. Stalin, Truman and Churchill at the Potsdam Conference. Upon learning about the atomic
bomb, Pres. Truman sent the Japanese the Potsdam Declaration, warning them to surrender or face
prompt and utter destruction. Unaware of the atomic bombs, the Japanese ignored the Potsdam Declaration. The first atomic bomb ever made (codename the little boy)
was a uranium-enriched bomb. It was dropped on the city of Hiroshima, Japan, on August 6, 1945. Trinity Video July 16, 1945 Arguments for Dropping the Atomic Bomb
Save 1,000,000 American and Japanese lives. Japanese resisted US forces by use of Kamikaze pilots in Okinawa and fighting without surrender at Iwo Jima and other battles. They didnt surrender after the fire bombing of major cities. No worse than fire bombing those cities. End the war quickly. The US was tired after 4 years of war. Germany had already surrendered in May, 1945. Japan resisted an unconditional
surrender. End the war before the Soviets join the Pacific war. The USSR had promised to join the war in August 1945. Demonstrate US power to the world. Convince the world that these weapons should be abolished. Revenge. Truman suggested after the war that he wanted to exact revenge for Pearl Harbor.
Large resources went into the development of the atomic bomb, and there was a desire to use it and test it. As an unelected President, Truman was controlled by his close advisors who favored using the bomb. Scientists and policy makers didnt fully appreciate effects of the bomb. With only 2 bombs, it would have been wasteful to detonate one as a demonstration. It might even be embarrassing if it didnt go off.
Arguments Against Dropping the Bomb Moral failure for being the only country to use an atomic bomb in war. The attack struck mainly civilians who outnumbered military personnel 6:1. When Truman announced the attack, he falsely claimed that Hiroshima was a military base. Japan was ready to surrender anyway. It was blockaded. Its navy and
air force were destroyed. Its overseas possessions were confiscated. The US needlessly insisted upon an unconditional surrender, since Japan was willing to surrender if it could retain the Emperor. A demonstration of US power would have been sufficient US moral authority, nationally and internationally, was weakened. Contributed to mistrust held by the USSR and prompted a dangerous
arms race. There was no need for the second bomb on Nagasaki. There were many prominent military personnel against dropping the bomb, like Eisenhower, under-Secretary of the Navy, Ralph Bard, Army Chief of Staff General George C. Marshall, and Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, Commander in Chief of the Pacific Fleet.
Paul Tibbets, pilot of the Enola Gay, which dropped the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan, on August 6, 1945. On August 6, 1945, the U.S. dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima, Japan, killing at least 70,000 people and destroying most of the city.
Hiroshima Before The Atomic Bomb Hiroshima After The Atomic Bomb The aftermath of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima.
Kimono pattern. Burned areas on the back and on the dorsal portion of the upper arm show that thermal rays
penetrated the black or the dark colored parts of kimono she wore. Severe burns. Only his waist was protected from a burn by a waistband he wore (within 1km from the hypocenter).
Ohmura Navy Hospital: A 14 year old girl after the bombing of Hiroshima at Ohmura Navy Hospital on August 10-11.
On August 9, the U.S. dropped another atomic bomb on the city of Nagasaki, killing at least 40,000 people. Fat man on transport car Mushroom cloud from the nuclear
explosion over Nagasaki rising 60,000 feet into the air Before and after photos of downtown Nagasaki. Number of Atomic Bomb Casualties: Hiroshima and Nagasaki
In 10,000s Deaths Injuries Countries with nuclear weapons are: USA Russia UK
France China Pakistan India Countries suspected of having nuclear weapons: Iran
North Korea Israel On August 14,1945 Japan officially surrendered ending World War II. This date
became known as V-J Day (Victory over Japan). For millions of Americans, Alfred Eisenstaedt's 1945 LIFE photograph of a
sailor stamping a masterly kiss on a nurse symbolized the cathartic joy of V-J Day. Crowds outside the White House celebrate V-J Day, the
Japanese surrender and the end of World War II. August 1945
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