Chapter 19 Systems Construction and Implementation McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright 2007 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Objectives 19-2 Explain the purpose of the construction and implementation phases of the systems life cycle. Describe the systems construction and implementation phases in terms of your information building blocks.
Describe the systems construction implementation phases in terms of major tasks, roles, inputs and outputs. Explain several application program and system tests. Identify several system conversion strategies. Identify those chapters in this textbook that can help you actually perform the tasks of systems construction and implementation. 19-3 What Is System Construction and Implementation? Systems construction the development, installation, and testing of system components. A common but unfortunate synonym is systems development (more frequently used to describe the
entire life cycle.) Systems implementation the installation and delivery of the entire system into production. Day-to-day operation 19-4 The Context of System Construction and Implementation 19-5 Tasks for Completing The Construction Phase 19-6
Construction Phase 1. Build and Test Networks Often system build around existing networks. If system calls for new network functionality, must by built and tested prior to programs that use that it. Roles Network designer Designs LAN and WAN connectivity Network administrator builds and tests Network architecture standards Security Systems analyst Facilitates
Ensures that business requirements are not compromised 19-7 Construction Phase 2. Build and Test Databases Implement database schema Test with sample data Deliver unpopulated database structure Roles System users Provide and/or approve test data
Database designer/programmer Build tables, views, stored procedures (if relational database) Database administrator Tune database for optimum performance Security Backup and recovery Systems Analyst 19-8 Build non-corporate, applications-oriented database Ensures business requirements compliance Construction Phase
3. Install and Test New Software If system requires purchased or leased software, must be installed and tested. Roles Systems analyst Clarifies business requirements System designer Clarifies integration requirements Network administrator Install software package Software vendor/consultant Assist in installation and testing Applications programmer
Test according to integration requirements 19-9 Construction Phase 4. Write and Test New Programs Develop in-house programs Reuse available software components in library Write new components Test Document
Roles Systems analyst Clarifies business requirements System designer Clarifies program design and integration requirements Application programmer (or team) 19-10 Writes and tests in-house software Levels of Testing Stub test - a test performed on a subset of a program. Individual events or modules of a program. Testing of an isolated subset of a program.
Unit or program test a test performed on an entire program. All the events and modules tested as an integrated unit. Systems test a test performed on an entire system 19-11 Ensures that application programs written and tested in isolation work properly when integrated into the total system. Tasks for Completing The Implementation Phase
19-12 Implementation Phase 1. Conduct System Test Test network, databases, purchased software, new in-house software, and existing software to make sure it all works together. Roles Systems analyst Develops system test data Communicates problems and issues System builders (database, network, programmers) Resolve problems revealed during testing System owners and users
Verify whether or not system operates correctly May result in return to construction phase 19-13 Iterate until successful system test Implementation Phase 2. Prepare Conversion Plan Plan for how to convert from old system to new system.
How to install and populate databases How to train users Finalize documentation Conversion issues Roles System analyst/Project manager Develop a detailed conversion plan Steering committee 19-14 Approves plan and timetable Installation Strategies Abrupt cutover
Parallel conversion Location conversion Locations Staged conversion 19-15 Versions Systems Acceptance Test Systems acceptance test a test performed on the final system wherein users conduct a verification, validation, and audit test. Uses real data over an extended time period Extensive test that addresses: verification testing, validation testing, and audit testing.
Verification testing runs the system in a simulated environment using simulated data. 19-16 Alpha testing Simulated environment using simulated data Checks for errors and omissions regarding end-use and design specifications Systems Acceptance Test (continued) Validation testing runs the system in a live environment using real data. Beta testing Live environment using real data
Testing: Systems performance (throughput and response time) Peak workload performance Human engineering Methods and procedures Backup and recovery Audit testing certifies that the system is free of errors and is ready to be placed into operation. 19-17
Implementation Phase 3. Install Databases Populate new system databases with existing data from old system Generally have to restructure data as it is populated Must confirm that data is translated correctly Roles Application programmers Write (or use) special programs to extract data from existing databases and populate new databases Systems analyst/designer Calculate database sizes and estimate time for installation 19-18
Implementation Phase 4. Train Users System users trained and provided with documentation Roles System analyst Plan trainings Conduct trainings Write documentation Help users through the learning period
System owners Approve release time for training System users Attend training Accept system 19-19 An Outline For A Training Manual 19-20 I. Introduction II. Manual A. The manual system (a detailed explanation of peoples jobs and standard operating procedures for the new
system). B. The computer system (how it fits into the overall workflow). 1. Terminal/keyboard familiarization. 2. First-time end users. a. Getting started. b. Lessons C. Reference manual (for non beginners). III. Appendixes A. Error messages. Implementation Phase 5. Convert to New System Ownership transfers from analysts and builders to end users. Roles
Systems analyst/Project manager Carries out conversion plan Correct shortcomings Measure system acceptance System owners Provide feedback System users 19-21 Provide feedback
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