Language Development & Communication Basic Components of Language:

Language Development & Communication Basic Components of Language:

Language Development & Communication Basic Components of Language: 1. Phonology 2. Semantics 3. Syntax 4. Pragmatics Language Development &

Communication Basic Components of Language: Language Development & Communication Theories of Language Development 1. Learning Perspective Imitation and reinforcement Evaluation of perspective Language Development & Communication

Theories of Language Development 2. Nativist Perspective Noam Chomsky Language Acquisition Device (LAD) Language-Making Capacity (LMC) Language Development & Communication Theories of Language Development Support for Nativist perspective

a. Brocas & Wernickes areas Language Development & Communication Theories of Language Development Support for Nativist perspective a. Brocas & Wernickes areas b. Infant phonetic discrimination c. Sensitive period

d. Invention of language Language Development & Communication Theories of Language Development Problems with Nativist perspective a. Plasticity retained b. Rhesus monkeys can discriminate sounds much like human infants c. Do invented languages occur without adult

intervention? d. LAD not very helpful concept Language Development & Communication Theories of Language Development 3. Interactionist Perspective Biology + Environment Environmental Support for Language Development a. Joint activities (zone of

proximal development) Language Development & Communication Theories of Language Development 3. Interactionist Perspective Biology + Environment Environmental Support for Language Development a. Joint activities (zone of proximal development) b. Motherese / Child Directed

Speech c. Expansions/recasts d. Conversation is critical Language Development & Communication SEQUENCE OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Prelinguistic Period (until 10 to 13 mos) A. Making sounds 1. Cooing 2. Babbling

3. Vocables SEQUENCE OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Prelinguistic Period (until 10 to 13 mos) A. Making sounds B. Learning the rules 1. Taking turns 2. Gestures & non-verbal communication 3. Receptive vs. productive language

SEQUENCE OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Holophrastic Period (from 10-13 mos to 18-24 mos) Holophrastic period Holophrase Naming explosion -

SEQUENCE OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Holophrastic Period (from 10-13 mos to 18-24 mos) Referential style Expressive style Cultural and birth order effects. SEQUENCE OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT

Holophrastic Period (from 10-13 mos to 18-24 mos) Overextension use relatively specific words to refer to a broader set of objects, actions, or events than adults do. Underextension use general words to refer to a smaller set of objects, actions or events than adults do.

SEQUENCE OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Telegraphic Period (from 18-24 mos to about 30 mos) Early sentences (two words or more) consist solely of content words and omit the less meaningful parts of speech.

For example: More candy See kitty We go SEQUENCE OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Universal Milestones in Language Devel. Milestone Approx. Age

Cooing 2-3 mos. Babbling 5 mos. First Words 10-14 mos.

Ten Words 12 mos. Two-word 21-24 mos. sentence Two-hundred words

24 mos. SEQUENCE OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Preschool Period (from 2 to 5 years) Grammatical development Overregularization overgeneralize grammatical rules to irregular cases (see cartoon). Semantics

Pragmatics & Communication Skills SEQUENCE OF LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Middle Childhood & Adolescent Period (6-14 years) Use larger words Produce longer & more complex sentences Think about language and manipulate it in new ways

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT The Importance of Reading to Children (Whitehurst et al. 1988) Toddlers Control group Experimental group After one month, the children in the experimental group had a larger gain in vocabulary Replicated in Mexico (ValdezMenchaca & Whitehurst, 1992)

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT American Sign Language Sign constructed from a limited set of gestural components (same way that the spoken word is constructed from a finite number of distinctive sounds or phonemes). LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT American Sign Language

Sign constructed from a limited set of gestural components (same way that the spoken word is constructed from a finite number of distinctive sounds or phonemes). Components of ASL: 1. Position of hands 2. Configuration of hands/fingers 3. Motions of

hands/fingers LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT American Sign Language Deaf children acquire ASL much like hearing children acquire their oral language. 1. Babbling 2. Holophrastic phrases (action words, naming objects, modifiers).

3. Telegraphic statements 4. Same stages LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT American Sign Language Deaf children acquire ASL much like hearing children acquire their oral language. When deaf children are raised with deaf parents:

Babbling 7-11 mos. Pointing 8-9 mos. Word/Sign 12 mos. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Bilingualism Two Critical Issues: 1. Expose to both? Best way to do this? 2. What is the best way to acquire a second language

for school? LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Bilingualism Exposing child to two languages at the same time: Slower at first, catch up Dont mix up LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Bilingualism Bilingual Education:

Whats most effective when child does not speak language of school? Not Immersion Not ESL Programs Some basic instruction in native language in first year or two LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Bilingualism Advantages: Increased language proficiency

Increased concept formation Increased nonverbal intelligence Increased metalinguistic awareness Note: These positive effects result from bilingual immersion and also foster an appreciation for diversity! Two-way bilingual education? LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Critical Period for Language Acquisition?

Critical Period Hypothesis: Notion that human beings are most proficient at learning language before puberty. Prepubescent children Brain damage Summary LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Critical Period for Language Acquisition? Wild Children Number of cases recorded

Number of cases that acquired language Number that did not learn any language (Reich, 1986) Most famous case

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