Information Briefing Company / Team Operations National Training

Information Briefing Company / Team Operations National Training

Information Briefing Company / Team Operations National Training Center Fort Irwin, CA C07-1 Unclassified Train the Force! Purpose To Provide an Overview of Training Rotations at the NTC And Discuss Company / Team Trends Observed During Training Rotations At the National Training Center C07-2 Train the Force! Agenda Introduction Overview of the National Training Center

- Mission Statement Role of the Observer-Controller Training Rotation Typical Task Force Timeline Rotational Trends Recommended Company Commander Focus Home Station Training C07-3 Conclusion Train the Force! Mission Statement Mission of the National Training Center Provide Realistic Combined Arms and Joint Training Focused on Developing Troopers, Leaders and Units of Americas Army for Success on the 21st Century Battlefield C07-4 Train the Force!

Mission Statement Mission of the Cobra Team Train Armored Task Forces and Cavalry Squadrons, Based on Doctrine and Tactics, Techniques and Procedures, So They Improve Their Warfighting Capabilities, Leaving the NTC Better Trained Than When They Arrived C07-5 Train the Force! NTC Quote The Only Difference Between Real Combat and Your NTC Rotation Is That in Real Combat You Dont Get a Second Chance to Learn From Your Mistakes - Use Every Opportunity To Hone Your Warfighting Skills Here - LTC(P) Dennis E. Rogers, Cobra 07 C07-6 Train the Force! Role Of The OC Create the Conditions for Armored Task Forces and Cavalry Squadrons To:

- Train Realistically, but Safe - Get Better Every Day and Improve Warfighting Proficiency by the End of the Rotation - Maintain Discipline and a Winning, Warrior Spirit - Understand How To Set Conditions to Improve Homestation Training Coach and Teach Army Doctrine, and Tactics, Techniques, and Procedures (TTP) Facilitate the Learning Process by Conducting After Action Reviews Assist Rotational Units With MILES and MILES II/SAWE Enforce the NTC Rules Of Engagement (ROE) Enforce Safety C07-7 Train the Force! Training Rotation SUN Arrival MON TUE WED

THU FRI Reception, Staging, Onward Movement, and Integration (RSOI) SAT Move-Out Force on Force Training Days 0-14 Live Fire Download Final RM Regeneration / Between Rotation Days (BRD) C07-8 Train the Force! Task Force Planning Timeline

~ 1200 Hrs Continue the Mission 1200 1800 CTM BATTLE 2 Step 1 2400 0600 1200 1800 2400 0600 LD BATTLE 3

1600 Hrs = Co/Tm AARs Complete 1800-2000 Hrs = TF AAR 1300-1400 Hrs = BDE OPORD 1600 Hrs = Mission Analysis Complete 1700 Hrs = Commanders Guidance 2030 Hrs = COA Development Starts Step 2 2230 Hrs = Wargame Starts 2400-0200 Hrs = Order Reproduction Step 3 0500 Hrs = OPORD Review 0600-0700 Hrs = Issue OPORD Step 4 Step 5 Refinement 42 Hours Co/Tm OPORD Complete PLT OPORD Complete PLT Rehearsals Co/Tm Rehearsals TF Rehearsals

BDE Rehearsals Final TF Rehearsal 14 Hours (1/3) *as in example above 8.5 Hours (1/5) 6 Hours (1/7) C07-9 Train the Force! Rotational Trends Typically, Rotational Units Have Difficulty With... Reconnaissance And Surveillance Planning And Execution Synchronization And Integration Of Combat Multipliers Integration Of Fires In The Close Fight Planning And Building Flexibility Into The Orders Process Field Maintenance - Fault Identification And Repair Part Tracking C07-10 Train the Force! Reconnaissance & Surveillance Planning and Execution Must Answer The Commanders PIR Maximize All Assets... Scouts, Company / Teams, FISTs, etc

Scouts Have No Clear Task & Purpose Size Of NAIs Too Large... No Focus Communications And C2 Of The R&S Force C07-11 Train the Force! Reconnaissance & Surveillance Planning and Execution Recommendation: C07-12 Assign Responsibility For R&S Planning Issue Guidance Early Integrate As a Battlestaff Product Plan With the Proper Tools (NAI / TAI / DP Link) Rehearse / Coordinate With Higher and Adjacent Units

Update the Plan / Issue FRAGOs Train the Force! Synchronization & Integration Of Combat Multipliers Battle Command - Commanders Do Not Envision How The Enemy Fights... And How We Will Fight Leaders Do Not Understand The Capabilities & Limitations Of Systems, Time, And Space Units Struggle With Wargaming Leaders Lack Flexibility And Initiative In Battle Execution Simulation Vs Field Application / Execution C07-13 Train the Force! Synchronization & Integration Of Combat Multipliers Recommendation: Leaders Must Understand System Capabilities and Limitations All BOS Must Be Addressed During Wargame Become Proficient at Developing Synch Matrix and Decision

Support Matrix Establish Habitual Relationships With Slice Elements and Include These Units in Home Station Training Events Conduct Orders Drills / MDMP Training; Including All BOS Elements C07-14 Train the Force! Integration Of Indirect Fires In The Close Fight Integration Of Fires And Maneuver... During Wargaming Synchronization Of Scheme Of Indirect Fires With Scheme Of Maneuver Loss Of Focus: Too Many EFSTs Transition Of Fires: Deep To Close Developing And Executing The Observation Plan C07-15 Train the Force! Integration Of Indirect Fires In The Close Fight Recommendation:

Commander Must Clearly Articulate the EFST TF S3 / XO and FSO Ensure Integration During Wargaming The FSO Advises the Commander on the Capabilities and FSO Develops Adequate Triggers Based On: Time and Space Relation to Terrain and Enemy TF Scheme of Maneuver FSO Develops: Scheme of Fires Observation Plan C07-16 Limitations of Fires Train the Force! ESSENTIAL FIRE SUPPORT TASK A Task for Fire Support to Accomplish That Is Required to Support a Combined Arms Operation. Failure to Achieve an EFST May Require the Commander to Alter His Tactical Plan. A Fully

Developed EFST Has a Task, Purpose, Method, and Endstate. Task (WHAT) - Effects of Fires Against a Specific Enemy Formation And/or Its Function (May Include Duration & When) Purpose (WHY) - In Terms of and Its Relation or Contribution to the Scheme of Maneuver Method (HOW) - To Acquire the Enemy Formation and Deliver the Means From a Fire Support Asset to Achieve the Desired Effects Endstate - Quantifiable Assessment to Determine If Task Is Accomplished & If Purpose Achieved - White Paper, Fire Support Planning for The Brigade and Below (Draft), 6 Jun 97 C07-17 Train the Force! Planning & Building Flexibility Into The Orders Process Not Prepared To Execute The MDMP In A Time Constrained Environment Receive Incomplete Guidance From The Commander Units Do Not Develop Flexible Plans Do Not Adjust The Plan As Conditions Change Across The Battle Operating Systems (BOS)... Running Estimate C07-18

Train the Force! Planning & Building Flexibility Into The Orders Process Recommendation: Staffs Must Become More Proficient in Identifying Branches and Sequels to the Operation ID During Wargaming Staffs Must Complete a Decision Support Matrix and Template As Part of Each MDMP Leaders Must Accurately Track the Battle and Staff Officers Must Maintain a Running Estimate Necessary to ID Changing Condition Ensure Battle Tracking During Home Station Training Events C07-19 Train the Force! Field Maintenance Units Deploy With A Garrison Based Logistics System... Not Focused On Field Operations Organizational Maintenance... PMCS, Diagnostics, Maintenance Requests... Not Timely Or To Standard Maintenance Management.... Company / Teams And Higher

Rely Completely On Good Comms Leaders Lack Focus On Building Combat Power C07-20 Train the Force! Field Maintenance Recommendation: Ensure a Solid System Exists for the Flow of 5988Es Develop a Tracking System that Allows the BMO to Shift Maintenance Priorities BMO Should Brief Maintenance Estimate During Mission Analysis and at OPORDs C07-21 Train the Force! Recommendations TTP For Company Commanders For The Company Commander, It Is Difficult to Do Everything Well... Here Are Some Recommendations to Focus Your Efforts C07-22

Train the Force! Time Management Discussion: Units Are Not Setting and Adhering to an Established Timeline Not Adhering to 1/3 - 2/3 Rule Units Not Trained to Meet Specific Requirements in Time Allotted Recommendation: The Company Must Establish a Realistic Timeline and Enforce It Make Maximum Use of Parallel Planning / Preparation Timeline Must Train Prior to Arrival to NTC Some Units Can Meet 6 Hr Window - Others Need 8-10 Hrs Exercise Orders Process at Home Station Under Same Conditions As NTC C07-23 Train the Force! Example Timeline ENEMY TLP (C2)

DAY__ DAY__ 0000 0000 0600 0600 1200 List Enemy Events 1200 MNVR / ENG / FS 0000 DAY__ 0000

0600 List Planning Events 1200 CSS 0600 List BOS Critical Events 1200 1800 1800 1800

1800 2400 2400 2400 2400 C07-24 DAY__ List Logistical Events Train the Force! Time Management For Offensive Operations Set Sequential

Simultaneous Daylight TF Directed Map Recon Make Tentative Plan Recon Forward Issue OPORD CO / PLT Planning CO / PLT OPORD CO / PLT Rehearsals Rehearsals LOGPAC PCIs R&S Stand0To Intel Updates Boresighting / Zero Move TAA - FPOL Move PP - ATK PSN Movement to TAA Establish Security Establish OPs

M8 Alarms Out PMCS LOGSTAT & PERSTAT PCC CO / PLT Rehearsals - Contact Drills - Action Drills - SBF & ABF Drills Load Plans PCI TDC TAA - FPOL LU with Attachments LOGPAC Adjacent Unit Coordination Use It or Lose It Security Patrols Recon LD PCC PMCS Boresighting CO / PLT Rehearsals WARNO Mission Analysis

Recon Forward TF OPORD TF Backbriefs Rehearsals Updated Unit Status Sleep Plan C07-25 Train the Force! Time Management For Defensive Operations Set Sequential Simultaneous Daylight TF Directed Map Recon Make Tentative Plan Recon EAs and BPs

Mark TRPs and Obst ID Proposed BPs Mark Veh Positions ID Triggers Co / Tm Fire Plan Occupy BPs Proof EAs Rehearsa Fire Plan Execute Deception Rehearse Cont Plan SZ RPOL Stand-To Intel Update Defend NLT Establish Security Establish OPs M8 Alarms Out Estab Wire Commo Prepare Rng Cards Confirm Rng Cards Supervise Dig Effort Prepare PLT Sketch CO / PLT Def Prep Status Occupy Deception Occupy Hide

TDC Routes LOGPAC Adjacent Unit Coord PMCS Stockpile CL IV / V Proof Obstacles Use It or Lose It Security Patrols Recon EAs Mark TRPs Site Obstacles ID Triggers Site Veh Positions Boresight / Zero Rehearse EAs Range Cards Sector Sketches Rehearse O/O Msn PCC PMCS WARNO Mission Analysis Recon Forward

TF OPORD TF Backbriefs Rehearsals Updated Unit Status Sleep Plan C07-26 Train the Force! Intelligence Preparation Of The Battlefield Discussion: Leaders Are Not Proficient at Conducting IPB Failure to See the Enemy and See the Terrain Often Result in Mission Failure Meeting the Enemy Unprepared Recommendation: Train Leaders at All Levels on Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield Conduct TEWTs and Professional Development Seminars to Increase Appreciation For Terrain Become Proficient in Threat Weapons Capabilities How Will the Enemy Employ His Assets? C07-27

Train the Force! Intelligence Preparation Of The Battlefield 1. Battlefield Area Evaluation a. Identify The Area Of Operation b. Identify The Limits Of The Area Of Interest 2. Terrain Analysis (IPB Product = MCOO) a. Observation / Fields Of Fire b. Avenues Of Approach c. Key Terrain d. Obstacles e. Cover and Concealment 3. Weather Analysis II Describe The Battlefield Effects III Evaluate The Threat IPB I Define the

Battlefield Environment IV Determine Threat COAs 4. Threat Analysis a. Doctrinal Template b. Threat Database 5. Threat Integration (IPB Product = Situation and Event Templates) a. Situation Template b. Event Template = Drives Recon Effort c. Decision Support Template C07-28 Train the Force! Impact Of Terrain On The Operation Wide Pass But Restricted To Two Single Lanes Due To

Rocks Terrain Analysis: Understanding How The Terrain Will Influence Friendly and Enemy Actions Narrow Pass But Room For Two Vehicles Abreast C07-29 4500 M 75 M Enemy Can Range Easily From Reverse Slope Of IV Line Enemy Must Cross IV Line To Range Past High Ground 2300 M

Train the Force! Reconnaissance & Surveillance and Security Discussion: Leaders Do Not Plan for Security and Battlefield Surveillance Units Are Often Bypassed or Destroyed by Unseen Enemy Reconnaissance and Surveillance Occurs in the Assembly Area, Battle Position, and on the Offensive Not Just in the Security Zone Recommendation: Develop and Enforce SOPs for Establishing Security Define Exact Security Requirements in Priorities of Work Develop Internal R&S Plan for All Operations Assign Responsibilities for NAIs (Where to Look), SIR (What to Look For), and Times to Look (Based on Event Temp) C07-30 Train the Force! Battle Command Discussion: Leaders Have Difficulty in Determining Units Mission Essential Task and Purpose

Leaders Do Not Assign Clear Task and Purpose to Subordinates Orders Are Often Incomplete and Lack Detail Poor Scheme of Maneuver, Weak Paragraph 1, and No Paragraph 4 and 5 Recommendation: Leaders Must Be Thoroughly Knowledgeable of Doctrine Conduct Training on the Planning Process Become Proficient in Developing and Writing Operations Orders Develop Leader Initiative Leaders Must Know the Why, Not the How Fight the Enemy, Not the Plan C07-31 Train the Force! The Why of the Mission PURPOSE THE PLAN ACTION LD TERRAIN ENEMY

LEADERS SELF 1. 2. 3. 4. C07-32 The Plan Must Be Adjusted for Changes In.. The Situation.. By Leaders Who Are Empowered to Exercise Initiative.. Which Allows for the Performance of the Right Task at the Right Time! - From Armor Magazine (July-August 1997) Article, The Reason Why We Will Win Train the Force! AGILITY: Reacting to an Uncooperative Enemy Battlefield Visualization: Continual Recognition Of Changing Battlefield Conditions Running Estimates

Continuous IPB Continuous R&S: Ensures We Maintain Initiative, Reduce Uncertainty, & Keep The Enemy Guessing Disseminate Gathered Intelligence on the Enemy Refine The Plan Accordingly Issue FRAGOs (Written Or Verbal) C07-33 Train the Force! Company / Team Command Posts The Company Command Post Assists the Commander and His Subordinate Leaders in Preparing for Battles by Providing a Centralized Point for Information Gathering and Dissemination, Coordination, Time Management, and Tracking of Unit Status. - Page 2-53, FM 71-1, 26 JAN 98 Keys to Success: C07-34

Redundant Communication Nets Avoid Using Combat Vehicles White Light Capable at Night Large Enough to Use for Briefings Quick Setup and Takedown Train the Force! Company / Team Command Posts OE254 SICCUP or Tarp A Way TF CMD TF MORT CO CMD CO CMD - FISTV Crew Needs to Train At Home Station With Co/Tm - Increases Manning - Covers More Nets - Makes Brigade FS Net Avail For Intel Traffic Another Way

- Reduces Risk of Losing FISTV To TF Mission or Other Duty - Reduces Signature - Back up Vehicle: Commanders HMMWV, Maint or Medic M113 OE254 C07-35 TF CMD CO CMD Train the Force! Company / Team Command Posts Manning Must Designate NCOIC (Eg. Master Gunner) Organize Into Two Shifts (Day and Night) With 3 Personnel Minimum Per Shift Designate Shift NCOs (Eg. Day - Gunner, Night - Senior Medic)

May Require Augmentation From Platoons Each NCO Must Brief NCOIC at Shift Change Operations How to Track Is Not So Important As What to Track, but the CP Is a Command and Control Node, So It Must Know Basics About the Company / Team The Commander Must Develop A Command Post SOP Most Frequently Forgotten Items: - Task Organization Status and Times - SITEMP Updates - Timeline Management - Adjacent Unit Locations C07-36 Train the Force! Direct Fire Planning Discussion: Units Do Not Arrive at the NTC With a Clear Concept of How to Develop a Direct Fire Plan Units Are Unable to Clearly Delineate Where They Desire to Kill the Enemy and Then Develop Graphic Control Measures That Will Focus, Mass, Distribute, and Shift Fires Appropriately Recommendation: Develop SOPs at All Levels That Include Standard Means for Focusing Fires While Preventing Fratricide Based on the

Principals of Fire Control, FM 71-1, Chapter 2 Use Terrain Boards and Field Exercises to Train That SOP C07-37 Train the Force! Direct Fire Planning TTP For The Defense TRP2 TRP4 TRP3 Q1 AE0100 TRP6 C07-38 Q4 Q2

TRP1 Q3 TRP5 MEL 3750m (TOW) MEL 2500m 120mm 25mm TRP7 FPL 1000m Train the Force! TF FIRE PLAN EXAMPLE 05 40 06

A1 3500M TRP1 39 AE2002 2500M 38 07 TRP4 08 09 A2 AE2001

PL TOW TRP3 PL TANK TRP2 1000M 800M 37 B1 B2 PL FIFTY PL COAX 36 35 C07-39 34

TM A TM B TM C Train the Force! Actions On Contact Discussion: Units Have Difficulty Reacting to Multiple Forms of Contact Units Tend to Stop When First Engaged Units Not Trained To React To, or Find Dismounted Weapons (Eg. AT-5, 2A45M) Recommendation: Train Actions on Contact Battle Drills for Multiple Forms of Contact (Section, Platoon, and Company Level) Expand Home Station Training to Include Dismounted Systems Train for Enemy Fire From Adjacent Unit Sector C07-40 Train the Force! Rehearsals

Discussion: Rehearsals Are Rarely Conducted to Standard Plan Not Well Disseminated to Subordinates Subordinates Uncertain of Commanders Intent Rehearsal Becomes a Briefing Recommendation: Develop Method to Quickly Build Rehearsal Site Ensure Subordinates Fully Understand the Plan Portray an Uncooperative Enemy Based on Most Likely ECOA Follow Logical Sequence Focusing on Critical Events Allow Subordinates to Brief Actions, Orientation, and T/P C07-41 Train the Force! Risk Management Discussion: Leaders Do Not Incorporate Risk Management in Planning Process Risk Management Includes Tactical and Accidental Risk Subordinates Only Use Higher Headquarters Risk Assessment They Do Not Consider Risk at Their Level Recommendation: Incorporate Risk Management in Planning Process ID Risks / Hazards Throughout Actively Manage Those Tactical Risks That May Result in Mission

Failure Get Input From Junior Leaders and Troopers Ensure Subordinates Complete RA C07-42 Train the Force! Risk Management Assess Hazards Develop Controls & Make Risk Decision Five Step Process 1. Identify Hazards 2. Assess Hazards IDENTIFY HAZARDS Implement Controls Supervise

& Evaluate 3. Develop Controls 4. Implement Controls 5. Supervise & Evaluate Conduct Risk Management Planning Concurrently With TLP / COA Development / Mission Planning C07-43 Train the Force! Home Station Training Eight Step Training Model 1. Plan The Training 2. Train And Certify Leaders 3. Recon The Training Site 4. Issue The Training Plan 5. Conduct Rehearsals 6. Execute Training 7. Conduct AARs 8. Retrain (Meet Standards) C07-44 Train the Force!

Conclusion Overview of the National Training Center - Mission Statement Role of the Observer-Controller Training Rotation Typical Task Force Timeline Rotational Trends Recommended Company Commander Focus Home Station Training C07-45 Train the Force!

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