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Preparing to Teach: GCSE English Language and English Literature for first assessment in 2017 1 of x Copyright AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. Follow us on Twitter @AQA. Something for every learner Progression Strand 1: KS3 Curriculum GCSE AS and A level

KS3 resources KS3 assessment papers KS4 resources Sample papers Marker training e-Library KS5 resources Sample papers Step Up to English GCSE/Post 16 literacy e-Library

Progression Strand 2: KS3 Curriculum 2 of x Copyright AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. How this session will work Self-reference materials support preparation for teaching familiar skills and question formats that have a degree of continuity and familiarity. Time for brief reflection and discussion.

Where our revised assessments have a new emphasis or approach: 3 of x we look in detail at these explore the mark scheme try out approaches to teaching and learning. Copyright AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. Preparing to teach: GCSE English Language

4 of x Copyright AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. Follow us on Twitter @AQA. English Language specification at a glance 5 of x Copyright AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. Assessment Objective 1 Assessment Objective Identify and interpret explicit and implicit information and ideas.

Select and synthesise evidence from different texts. 6 of x Copyright AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. Assessment Objective 2 Assessment Objective Explain, comment on and analyse how writers use language and structure to achieve effects and influence readers, using relevant subject terminology to support their views. 7 of x Copyright AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.

Assessment Objective 3 Assessment Objective Compare writers ideas and perspectives, as well as how these are conveyed, across two or more texts. 8 of x Copyright AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. 9 of x Copyright AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. Assessment Objective 5 and 6 Assessment Objectives AO5 Communicate clearly, effectively and imaginatively, selecting and adapting tone, style and register for different forms, purposes and audiences.

Organise information and ideas, using structural and grammatical features to support coherence and cohesion of texts. AO6 Use a range of vocabulary and sentence structures for clarity, purpose and effect, with accurate spelling and punctuation. 10 of 12 x Slide Copyright AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. 11 of x Self-reference pack Look at the Resource booklet. Opportunity for brief review and answering of questions.

This pack covers: Paper 1 Q1 Paper 1 Q2 Paper 2 Q1 Paper 2 Q3 Paper 2 Q5. Note: Use of notional reading time at the start of each paper. 12 of x What is new?

Our main focus today will be on starting points and approaches to: Paper 1 Q3, Q4, Q5 Paper 2 Q2, Q4. 13 of x Paper 1 Q3: AO2 (Structure) You now need to think about the whole of the text. This text is from the opening of a novel. How has the writer structured the text to interest you as a reader? You could write about:

14 of x what the writer focuses your attention on at the beginning how and why the writer changes the focus as the extract develops any other structural features that interest you. A reminder about AO2 AO2 sets out an internal hierarchy of progression: explain comment (on) analyse.

See mark scheme: As with P1 Q2, this rewards the skill of analysis at level 4. 15 of x Thinking about a ladder of skills progression: Level of response 3 The mark scheme asks: To see some accurate subject terminology (relating to structure) To see relevant exemplification (textual reference) To have a clear explanation of the effects of some of the structural features (effect and impact) All of which will lead to a demonstration of: A clear understanding of structural features. 16 of x

What is structure? How authors internally organise a text. As authors write a text to communicate an idea, they will use a structure that goes along with the idea. Meyer 1985 17 of x What can the structure of a text reveal?

The (narrative) perspective of the text (what?) The organisation and use of time (when?) The location and setting (where?) Characters and how they are introduced (who?) The different patterns within the text, and elements of syntax or cohesion that help to create (reinforce) meaning (how?) 18 of x 19 of x Copyright AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. 20 of x Copyright AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.

One teachers approach to teaching structure 21 of x A video is available on the AQA website to show how a teacher does this in the classroom. Paper 1 Q4: AO4 (Critical evaluation) For this question you need to focus on the second part of the text only, from line 16 to the end. A student, having read this section of the text, said: This part of the text, explaining what Hale is doing, shows how nervous and unsafe he feels. It reminds me of the first line. To what extent do you agree?

In your response, you could: consider your own impressions of how Hale feels evaluate how the writer creates an unsafe atmosphere support your own opinions with quotations from the text. 22 of x Being critical and evaluative The question itself is a culmination of the footprint of skills: AO1 AO2 AO4 The key for students is to:

have a sense of their own response develop the ability to ask questions independently about texts to enable them to interrogate, contest and have a response to what they read use the statement in the question to help inform their interpretation and evaluation of it. 23 of x Thinking Prompts: What? Idea 1: He seems to be in a rush. He wants to get out of the bar and keep moving Idea 2: He

seems compelled to do his job. Dutiful but feels vulnerable in Brighton 24 of x What am I agreeing with? - Nervous - Unsafe Hale knew that they meant to murder him? Idea 3: He

wants to be found quickly by a member of the public Thinking Prompts: How? Idea 1: Idea 2: 25 of x How does the writer make use of that first line? - Hale knew that they meant

to murder him. Idea 3: Thinking Prompts: What and How What? How? He seems to be in a rush. He wants to get out of the bar and

keep moving. He seems compelled to do his job. Dutiful but feels vulnerable in Brighton. He wants to be found quickly by a member of the public. He seems to be hiding in plain sight but seems tense and conscious of the underlying threat potentially lurking in the crowd. 26 of x Writer uses time references clock struck eleven and adverb hastily.

Repetition of always on time always always. The reference to the Whitsun crowd, the hint from his inclination, the irony of the references to challenge/challenger, the insidious description of the crowd as a twisted piece of wire. P1 Q4 mark scheme: Content description See the skills and then content descriptors for successive levels of response. How the content descriptors are designed to function:

27 of x not as model answers not as exhaustive or complete responses but as an indication of the type of level of response. One teachers approach to teaching critical reading skills 28 of x A video is available on the AQA website to show how a teacher does this in the classroom. Paper 1 Q5

Always a choice of written prompt and visual image that is linked to the topic of the reading text in section A. Always a creative task focusing on narrative and, or descriptive writing skills: one narration and one description, or two description, or two narration. Marks for content and organisation as well as for technical accuracy. Mark scheme designed to encourage ambition.

Section B will be allocated 40 marks to give an equal weighting to the reading and writing tasks. 29 of x Paper 2 Q2: AO1 and Q4: AO3 Paper 2 Q2 tests AO1 skills using two texts. To be successful at the top level of the MS, students need to: select a judicious range of textual detail connected to the focus of the question synthesise the detail from both texts, in order to provide a perceptive interpretation.

A stepping stone to Paper 2 Q4 which tests AO3 comparison. Students need to additionally: compare how ideas are conveyed analyse the methods used. 30 of x Paper 2 Q2: AO1 (synthesis) You need to refer to source A and source B for this question. The things to see and do at Glastonbury Festival and Greenwich Fair are different. Use details from both sources to write a summary of the differences.

31 of x The mark scheme: Level of response 3 Demonstrates clear connections between texts. Selects relevant quotations from both texts to support summary. Begins to interpret both texts. This leads to: Showing a clear understanding of the differences. 32 of x The S.Q.I method

Text mark or list details from both texts to cover the requirement for details (in this question about different things to see and do). Then: 33 of x Make clear statements about the connections (in this case differences) Quote details Make an inference from the quotation which shows understanding. Details: Different things to see and do Glastonbury Festival: Greenwich Fair:

In one field, a series of tents has lost its moorings half a pound of the real spice nuts, The acts for 2005 included Coldplay .. The Killers, you have a melodrama a pantomime, a comic song 34 of x pennyworths of pickled salmon Adding statements Glastonbury Festival

Greenwich Fair S: You can camp out Q: In one field, a series of tents has lost its moorings S: You can buy a selection of food Q: half a pound of the real spice nuts, pennyworths of pickled salmon S: You can see bands play Q: The acts for 2005 included Coldplay .. The Killers, S: You can watch some theatrical performances Q: you have a melodrama a

pantomime, a comic song 35 of x Put them together in summary Both Glastonbury and Greenwich have a focus on outdoor fun, but whereas modern crowds can camp out at Glastonbury in a series of tents which could be chaotic because some lose their moorings and go there to see bands like Coldplay and The Killers, at Greenwich the crowd went for treats to eat like spice nuts and pennyworths of pickled salmon. This suggests people have more leisure time to spend at Glastonbury than the crowd at Greenwich who seem to be enjoying a rare day out 36 of x Paper 2 Q4: AO3 (comparison) For this question you need to refer to the whole of source A together with the

whole of source B. Compare how the writers have conveyed their different views and experiences of the festival and fair they describe. In your answer, you could: 37 of x compare their different experiences compare the methods they use to convey those experiences support your ideas with quotations from both texts. How do you teach comparison? Look at the levels of response mark scheme, in particular, the content description:

How do you currently teach comparison skills? Share successful approaches with colleagues on your tables. 38 of x Preparing to teach: GCSE English Literature 39 of x Copyright AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. Follow us on Twitter @AQA.

40 of x an overview of both papers the importance of extract-to-whole assessment (Paper 1 Sections A and B) textual references and assessment of AO1 and AO2 in closed-book conditions comparison of seen (Paper 2 Section B) and unseen (Paper 2 Section C) poetry. English Literature specification at a glance 41 of x Copyright AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.

English Literature specification 42 of x Copyright AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. Assessment Objective 1 AO1 37.5% GCSE English Literature Assessment Objective Read, understand and respond to texts What this means

Students should be able to: The students response to the text the extent to which they understand the text and its meaning(s) to them as reader maintain a critical style and develop an informed personal response use textual references, including quotations, to support and illustrate

interpretations 43 of x This AO focuses on two areas of response: The students response to the task the extent to which they produce a coherent response, supported with references to the text Copyright AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. Assessment Objective 2 AO2

Analyse the language, form and structure used 42.5% by a writer to create meanings and effects, using relevant subject terminology where appropriate 44 of x This AO focuses on writers craft: how the writer has communicated meanings to the reader. Ideally students will use subject terminology as a shorthand to scaffold their analysis of craft. Copyright AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.

Assessment Objective 3 AO3 Show understanding of the relationships between 15% texts and the contexts in which they were written AO3 is the understanding of the relationship between the ideas in the text and the contexts of the text, such as: the context in which the text was written the context within which the text is set (location / social structures and features / cultural contexts / periods in

time) literary contexts such as genres the contexts in which texts are engaged with by different audiences 45 of x Copyright AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. Assessment Objective 4 AO4 Use a range of vocabulary and sentence structures for clarity, purpose and effect, with accurate spelling and

punctuation 46 of x This AO focuses on the students use of SPaG to communicate ideas to the reader. Copyright AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. Comparison In each specification as a whole, 20-25% of the marks should require candidates to show the abilities described in AO1, AO2 and AO3 through tasks which require them to make comparisons across texts. 47 of x

Copyright AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. AO3 is the understanding of the relationship between the ideas in the text and the contexts of the text. The range of contexts and relationships that is most relevant as part of AO3 will depend on the text, the author and the task. In teaching and assessing AO3, teachers and students can consider context in a flexible way, dependent on the text itself and whichever contexts are the most relevant for that particular text. These contexts may relate to the relationship between the text and the context in which it was written. However, these contexts may also relate to the context within which the text is set: location, social structures and features, cultural contexts, and periods in time. Context, where relevant, may also apply to literary contexts such as genres. It may also apply to the contexts in which texts are engaged with by different audiences. 48 of x

Context in questions Starting with this speech, explain how far you think Shakespeare presents Macbeth as a hero. At the start of Lord of the Flies, Piggy asks Ralph: Arent there any grownups at all? How does Golding present ideas about being a grown-up in Lord of the Flies? 49 of x Paper 1: Extract to whole assessment 50 of x

A holistic response to Paper 1 assessments Candidates can: spend more time on the extract or, spend more time on the whole write about the extract and then the whole approach both together at the same time. The response is marked as a whole. There is not a separate mark allocation for either of the two bullet points. 51 of x

A Skills Hierarchy: Level Descriptor 6 Critical, exploratory, well-structured approach to task and whole text Conceptualised approach supported by judicious references from text Insightful analysis of language, structure and form 5

Thoughtful, developed consideration of task and whole text References from text integrated into interpretation Detailed examination of effects of writers methods 4 Clear, sustained understanding of task and whole text References from text used to support explanation Clear explanation of effects of range of writers methods 3

Explained response to task and whole text Supported by range of relevant references to text Identification of effects of range of writers methods 2 Supported, relevant comments on task and text Relevant references to text Identification of writers methods

1 Simple, explicit comments showing awareness of task and text Narrative / descriptive references to text Awareness of writer making choices 52 of x One way of approaching an extract To engage students in similar ways to how they might approach extracts in the GCSE English Language papers:

53 of x what are the main ideas , themes or character that is being introduced, or developed? how do particular choices of words/phrases/ or lines within the extract affect the reader? why is the writer seeking to have this effect at this particular point in the play or novel? what other parts, or key pivotal moments of the text does it suggest? when I read this, what do I think is important? How does it add to, reinforce or change how I think about the character, relationships, themes or ideas that I have been studying?

One way of approaching an extract Read the following extract from Act 3 Scene 2 of Romeo and Juliet and then answer the question that follows. At this point in the play Juliet is waiting for the Nurse to come back from meeting Romeo. Starting with this speech, explore how Shakespeare uses language to present attitudes towards love in Romeo and Juliet. Write about: 54 of x what Juliet says about love in this speech how Shakespeare uses language to present attitudes to love in the play as a whole. Romeo and Juliet extract

JULIET Come, night; come, Romeo; come, thou day in night; For thou wilt lie upon the wings of night Whiter than new snow on a raven's back. Come, gentle night, come, loving, black-brow'd night, Give me my Romeo; and, when he shall die, Take him and cut him out in little stars, And he will make the face of heaven so fine That all the world will be in love with night And pay no worship to the garish sun. O, I have bought the mansion of a love, But not possess'd it, and, though I am sold, Not yet enjoy'd: so tedious is this day As is the night before some festival To an impatient child that hath new robes And may not wear them. O, here comes my nurse, And she brings news; and every tongue that speaks But Romeo's name speaks heavenly eloquence.

55 of x Romeo and Juliet extract JULIET Come, night; come, Romeo; come, thou day in night; For thou wilt lie upon the wings of night Whiter than new snow on a raven's back. Come, gentle night, come, loving, black-brow'd night, Give me my Romeo; and, when he shall die, Take him and cut him out in little stars, And he will make the face of heaven so fine That all the world will be in love with night And pay no worship to the garish sun. O, I have bought the mansion of a love, But not possess'd it, and, though I am sold, Not yet enjoy'd: so tedious is this day As is the night before some festival To an impatient child that hath new robes

And may not wear them. O, here comes my nurse, And she brings news; and every tongue that speaks But Romeo's name speaks heavenly eloquence. 56 of x One teachers approach to teaching extract to whole assessment 57 of x A video is available on the AQA website to show how a teacher does this in the classroom. Paper 2 Section A 58 of x

Approaches to textual references and assessment of AO1/AO2 in closed-book conditions Paper 2 Section A How does Priestley present some of the differences between the older and younger generations in An Inspector Calls? Write about: how the different generations respond to events and to each other how Priestley presents the different generations in the play. Activity: Use the mark scheme to rank order the two responses: which makes more useful references to the text?

which response shows that the candidate has better engagement with the question, and text? 59 of x A Skills Hierarchy Level Descriptor 6 Critical, exploratory, well-structured approach to task and whole text Conceptualised approach supported by judicious references from text

Insightful analysis of language, structure and form 5 Thoughtful, developed consideration of task and whole text References from text integrated into interpretation Detailed examination of effects of writers methods 4

Clear, sustained understanding of task and whole text References from text used to support explanation Clear explanation of effects of range of writers methods 3 Explained response to task and whole text Supported by range of relevant references to text Identification of effects of range of writers methods 2

Supported, relevant comments on task and text Relevant references to text Identification of writers methods 1 Simple, explicit comments showing awareness of task and text Narrative / descriptive references to text Awareness of writer making choices 60 of x

An Inspector Calls sample responses Priestley shows lots of differences between the older and younger generations in An Inspector Calls. At the start of the play Mr Birling spends a lot of time saying what he thinks and giving advice. He says: there is a lot of silly talk about these days about the war. He also says that weve passed the worst of it. This shows that he isnt right because the war happened, so Priestley is showing that Mr Birling isnt going to be right about anything. He then gives another long speech to Eric and Gerald. He says; youve a lot to learn yet. This makes him sound as if he thinks hes better than Eric and Gerald. He also says that he is a hard-headed man of business. Then he says; a man has to mind his own business and look after himself and his own. His famous quote is about the Titanic where he says unsinkable, absolutely unsinkable. At the end of the play he says the whole storys just a lot of moonshine. He also says the famous younger generation who know it all. And they cant even take a joke. Mrs Birling is the same because she tries to say that Eric and Sheila are just tired at the end of the play as if they are just children. Theyre over-tired. Sheila and Eric are different because they learn things from the Inspector. Eric learns because he says we helped to kill her and Sheila says I suppose were all nice people now.

61 of x An Inspector Calls sample responses In An Inspector Calls, Priestley uses the contrast between the younger and older generations to explore his ideas about society and responsibility. As the play progresses, the contrast gets more extreme. At the start of the play, Eric is shown to be irresponsible through the presentation of him as a drinker. Sheila is getting engaged and is shown to be very excited about her engagement ring, although Priestley uses stage directions to hint that there is a more serious side to her half serious, half playful. Because of what we later find out about Gerald and his similarity to Mr Birling, this direction shows that Sheila is quite wise and has good instincts. On the other hand Mr Birling is shown to have very bad instincts in Act One. He keeps telling the youngsters to listen to him, as if he is drawing attention to the wisdom of his years and experience. This repetition forces the audience to pay attention to the differences between the older and younger generations, as if Priestley is indicating that this is an important idea in the play. This is then highlighted even further with Mr Birlings confident statements about the Titanic and the War: unsinkable, absolutely

unsinkable and The Germans dont want war. These statements in particular allow Priestley to demonstrate the arrogance of people like Birling who think they know it all but are completely wrong. The language Birling uses is blunt and to the point, as if there is no room for argument in what he thinks. However, Priestley is using irony here to show how wrong he is and therefore not to be trusted, in contrast with Sheila who has very good instincts. 62 of x An Inspector Calls sample responses In An Inspector Calls, Priestley uses the contrast between the younger and older generations to explore his ideas about society and responsibility. As the play progresses, the contrast gets more extreme. At the start of the play, Eric is shown to be irresponsible through the presentation of him as a drinker. Sheila is getting engaged and is shown to be very excited about her engagement ring, although Priestley uses stage directions to hint that there is a more serious side to her half serious, half playful. Because of what we later find out about Gerald and his similarity to Mr Birling, this direction shows that Sheila is quite wise and has good instincts. On the other hand Mr Birling is shown to have very bad instincts in Act One. He keeps

telling the youngsters to listen to him, as if he is drawing attention to the wisdom of his years and experience. This repetition forces the audience to pay attention to the differences between the older and younger generations, as if Priestley is indicating that this is an important idea in the play. This is then highlighted even further with Mr Birlings confident statements about the Titanic and the War: unsinkable, absolutely unsinkable and The Germans dont want war. These statements in particular allow Priestley to demonstrate the arrogance of people like Birling who think they know it all but are completely wrong. The language Birling uses is blunt and to the point, as if there is no room for argument in what he thinks. However, Priestley is using irony here to show how wrong he is and therefore not to be trusted, in contrast with Sheila who has very good instincts. 63 of x The English e-Library Because English is so much more than words on paper.

64 of x Allows your students to interact with texts in new and exciting ways. Packed with bespoke audio, video and image content, lesson plans and teaching ideas. Customisable resources - highlight texts, search for keywords, add and save annotations, link resources and add weblinks, share with individuals and groups. Authoritative content created for teachers, by teachers. Video clips can be used on and offline to introduce

lessons, as homework, or as models for students to create their own content. Available exclusively and free of charge to those to commit to teaching with us. Copyright AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. Paper 2 Section B: Comparison of studied poems To help, we: list the titles of poems in each cluster on the exam paper as a key reminder print the poem named in the question on the exam paper. Students need to: know their chosen cluster of poems holistically be able to make connections and comparisons between the poems and the theme of the cluster. Students will need help to: use the named poem for close AO2 references in particular

focus on the named poem printed for them in the question paper as a starting point consider how best to reference their own choice of poem for the purpose of comparison. 65 of x Activity 1. Look at this question from the first set of specimen papers: Compare the ways poets present ideas about power in Ozymandias and in one other poem from Power and conflict. 2. How is this student making effective references to the poems? See response in your pack. 3. Now look briefly at the questions in the second set of specimen papers: How are they establishing a similar degree of support for students to address AO1 and AO2? 66 of x

Activity Both Ozymandias and My Last Duchess show the effects of power and how it corrupts. Shelley describes Ozymandias sneer of cold command as if to suggest that he is a cruel and heartless leader, only concerned with his own power and the immortality it will bring. The Duke in My Last Duchess is similarly concerned with his own power and status . Although the monologue is supposed to replicate a conversation, there is no opportunity for his listener to speak Browning writes the monologue to show the Dukes self-obsession and that he is not interested in anyones views other than his own. Ozymandias might have had cold command of his lands, just like the Duke gave commands. Both poets are concerned with the effects of power and how in the wrong hands it corrupts. The Duke is shown to be misguided as Browning uses imagery to hint at the Duchess kindness and gentle spirit (white pony) to prove that she is innocent and has been killed for nothing. Ozymandias is shown to also be cruel: sneer of cold command however he has been left with nothing: the lone and level sands stretch far away. It could be argued that the Duke has also been left with nothing: he has a statue of Neptune which is made of cold bronze. He doesnt realise this himself however, as he cares nothing for human relationships and is far more concerned, like Ozymandias, with his pride and reputation. Ultimately both leaders are shown by the poets to be corrupt. Both poets feel that power in the wrong hands has devastating consequences on the innocent. However, although both poets show that this

corruption is punished in the end, perhaps it is the Duke who is shown more clearly to be the true despot as Browning uses the dramatic monologue to show first hand how completely self absorbed he is. 67 of x Paper 2 Section C: Comparison of unseen poetry Students do really well, and seem to enjoy, responding to unseen poems. The response to unseen is the final task. In this way, it gives students the opportunity to demonstrate and use the skills they have learned throughout the course in a synoptic way. Comparison of unseen texts is a requirement of the qualification. However, this element of the qualification is worth 8 marks out of a total of 168. As students respond to the first unseen poem, they are mentally gathering ideas to use in the final 8 mark task. Both poems will have very clear links and connections in terms of ideas. The final 8 mark task will also make these main links and connections explicit. 68 of x

Paper 2 Section C: Comparison of unseen poetry How to Leave the World that Worships Should Let faxes butter-curl on dusty shelves. Let junkmail build its castles in the hush of other peoples halls. Let deadlines burst and flash like glorious fireworks somewhere else. As hours go softly by, let others curse the roads where distant drivers queue like sheep. Let e-mails fly like panicked, tiny birds. Let phones, unanswered, ring themselves to sleep. Above, the sky unrolls its telegram, immense and wordless, simply understood: youve made your mark like birdtracks in the sand now make the air in your lungs your livelihood. See how each wave arrives at last to heave itself upon the beach and vanish. Breathe. Ros Barber

69 of x Sample Task 27.1 In How to Leave the World that Worships Should, how does the poet present ideas about the way we live and work in the modern world? 70 of x Activity Read the question and the poem. Select three lines / words / phrases that you think are particularly significant.

71 of x Paper 2 Section C: Comparison of unseen poetry The Rich Eat Three Full Meals The rich eat three full meals, the poor two small bowls But peace is what matters. Thirsty, I drink sweet plum tea; Warm, I lie in the shade, in the breeze; My paintings are mountains and rivers all around me, My damask*, embroidered, the grass. I rest at night, rest easy, Am awake with the sun And enjoying Heavens heaped-up favours. Nguyen Binh Khiem 72 of x Paper 2 Section C: Comparison of unseen poetry

27.2 In both The Rich Eat Three Full Meals and How to Leave the World that Worships Should, the speakers describe attitudes towards the world around us. What are the similarities and / or differences between the ways the poets present these attitudes? 73 of x Forming a comparative response Both. Both. However. 74 of x Paper 2 Section C top level three response? Both speakers are talking about how it is important to enjoy life and see the beauty of the natural world. In The Rich the poet uses positive images to show the beauty of

the world for example my paintings are mountains and rivers which gives the sense that he sees the world as a work of art and something precious to be admired. In How to, the poet also uses positive imagery although she uses them to show the power and size of the natural world such as immense and wordless, as if the natural world is bigger and much more important than the human world. This suggests that Barber sees the natural world as something bigger that we cant own, but the poet in The Rich seems to suggest something different through his images, as if the natural world belongs to humans. This is also suggested by the ways both poets position the idea of peace. In The Rich it is on the second line but Barber puts the word breathe right at the end of the poem. Both suggest that it is the main point of their poem however, because in The Rich it is a definite statement: peace is what matters and in How To it is a direct instruction in a single word sentence at the end of the poem. However, although both poems are about similar ideas, How to seems more direct and as if it matters more. She uses second person and lots of instructions to the reader in the second verse, whereas The Rich just describes his own way of looking at the world. This makes How to seem more powerful and direct as if it is very important that we do as she says.

75 of x Co-teaching our specifications 76 of x Copyright AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. Co-teachable skills AO Skills Planning Opportunities Lang AO1 Lit AO1

Having a response to what they read Lang 1 Sec A Lit 1 Sec A, B Lit 2 Sec A Lang AO2 Lit AO2 Being able to analyse language and textual references

Lang 1 Sec A Lit 1 Sec A, B Lit 2 Sec A, B, C Lang AO4 Lit AO1 Developing a more critical response Lang 1 Sec A Lit 1 Sec A, B Lit 2 Sec A, B, C

Lang AO3 Lit AO2 Being able to compare ideas and texts Lang 2 Sec A Lit 2 Sec B, C 77 of x Copyright AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. Plenary activity

Consider how you might co-teach for language and literature skills development: close reading responses to an extract critical interpretations use of a literature set text to give coherence (and content) within a unified course. 78 of x Copyright AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. Further support from AQA GCSE English subject team: [email protected] / 0161 953 7504 One hour video presentations of the new GCSE English Language and Literature can be accessed via the AQA website:

http://www.aqa.org.uk/subjects/english/gcse/english-language-specification-l aunch-webcast http://www.aqa.org.uk/subjects/english/gcse/english-literature-specification-la unch-webcast Resources on website for GCSE English Language and English Literature: planning resources teaching resources assessment resources. Further training courses will be available from autumn 2015 details can be found on the AQA website: www.aqa.org.uk/professional-development 79 of x Copyright AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. NEW! Exampro English Free for a limited time

See real student responses to exam questions, highlighted and annotated Get insight into assessment objectives and standards for GCSE English Great for CPD Whiteboard plenaries

Mock exams and progress tests Register today for free exampro.co.uk/english 80 of x 80 Copyright AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. "Taking the mystery out of marking, it provides reliable information direct from the exam board! Caroline Woolfe, English teacher Commit to teach AQA English specifications

81 of x If you complete a Commit to teach you will have access to further resources from AQA. Copyright AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved. Thank you We are an independent education charity and the largest provider of academic qualifications for all abilities taught in schools and colleges. Our aim is to enable students to realise their potential and provide teachers with the support and resources they need so that they can focus on inspiring learning. http://www.aqa.org.uk/

82 of x Follow us on Twitter @AQACPD. Copyright AQA and its licensors. All rights reserved.

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