By: Jodi Tidwell BSN, RN To place a tube in the pleural space to decompress a tension pneumothorax or fluid accumulation in order to allow adequate lung expansion for ventilation. Pneumothorax - collection of air in the pleural space Tension pneumothorax one way valve effect allowing air to enter the pleural
space but not leave. Air fills up forcing a mediastinal shift. This leads to decreased venous return to the heart and lungs causing acute life-threatening respiratory and cardiovascular compromise. A tension pneumothorax can result in rapid clinical deterioration and is an emergency situation. Post operatively e.g. cardiac surgery, thoracotomy Pleural effusion accumulation of fluid in the pleural space. Four types of fluid can accumulate in the pleural space:
Serous fluid (hydrothorax) Blood (haemothorax) Chyle (chylothorax) Interesting facts: Symptoms of congenital chylothorax are present in approximately 50% of all cases at birth and virtually all cases are diagnosed within the first week of life. Morbidity in neonates born with the disorder ranges from 2060%. Chylothorax occurs twice as often in male neonates compared with females and is more commonly seen on the right side of the thorax. Congenital chylothorax is more likely in neonates born with Turners, Downs or Noonans syndromes. Pus (pyothorax or empyema) X-ray note! If a pneumothorax is suspected, the infant should be lying with the suspected side up during the
lateral decubitus x-ray. If a pleural effusion is suspected, the infant should be placed with suspected side down. In this way, layering out of the air or fluid may occur so that a lung margin is seen separated from the chest wall by the air or fluid in the intrapleural space. pneumothorax Pleural Effusion Pain medication ordered by physician 1% Lidocaine, 1 ml syringe with 25 gauge needle
ChloraPrep Sterile gloves, masks, and hat (gown optional) Sterile tray to include: 4 x 4s
2 x 2s Drapes Curved mosquito hemostats Scissors Sterile thoracotomy tube (10 F for infants under 1500 grams and 12 F for infants over 1500 grams) Scalpel 4-0 silk suture on cutting needle Petroleum soaked gauze Underwater sealed drainage /Dry suction drainage system Pre-treatment evaluation: Monitor the patients cardiorespiratory status and oxygen saturations throughout the procedure.
Premedicate infant for pain control. Chest tubes are painful as the parietal pleura is very sensitive. Assess need for further medication throughout the procedure. Position the patient supine with the affected side slightly elevated and the arm on the affected side restrained superiorly (over the head) or anteriorly. Assist physician with procedure Chest Drain Set Up Perform hand hygiene Open drain packaging in a clean manner Prepare
drain as per manufacturers instructions Pass sterile end of tubing to physician inserting drain when they are ready Apply suction to drain if ordered Secure drain and tubing to bed and patient Perform hand hygiene
Never lift drain above chest level The unit and all tubing should be below patients chest level to facilitate drainage Tubing should have no kinks or obstructions that may inhibit drainage Ensure all connections between chest tubes and drainage unit are tight and secure Tubing should be anchored to the patients skin to prevent torqueing and pulling the patients skin In NICU the tubing should also be secured to the patient
bed to prevent accidental removal Ensure the unit is securely positioned If suction is required, orders should be written by medical staff Atrium Oasis Dry Suction Water Seal Chest Drain: Wall suction should be set at >80mmHg or higher The bellows should be out to the arrow mark @ 20cmH20 Any visible expansion of the bellows is adequate for suction <20cmH20 If the bellows deflate, check the wall suction is still working, set to >80mmHg and that the suction tubing is not kinked
Milking or Stripping of chest drains is only to be done with written orders from medical staff. Stripping drains creates a high negative pressure that can cause pain, tissue trauma and bleeding and increases the risk of tube removal. Document volume and color of drainage throughout shift. If there is a change (for example: from haemoserous to bright red or serous to creamy) notify physician. Observe for signs of infection and inflammation and
document findings Check dressing is clean and intact. If not, notify physician for dressing change orders. Observe sutures remain intact and secure Dressings should be changed if: No longer dry and intact, or signs of infection e.g. redness, swelling, exudate Infected drain sites require daily changing, or when wet or soiled This procedure is a risk for accidental drain removal so avoid unnecessary dressing changes and always notify physician before changing the dressing.
Dublin, PJ and Gallagher, PG. (2000). Congenital chylothorax. Current Opinions in Pediatrics, 12, 505-509. Rocha, G. (2007). Pleural effusions in the neonate. Current Opinions in Pulmonary Medicine, 13, 3-5. Shreiner, RL. (2009). Chest Tube Insertion in Neonates. Vol. 237. No. 21.
Charles TIEBOUT. hypotéza o možnosti vytvořit jednotlivé okrsky s takovou skladbou veřejných statků, která vyhovuje obyvatelům - ostatní se mohou přestěhovat („hlasování nohama" = „voting with the feet").
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