The new unification of the working class, coupled with conservative reforms of the Congress of Vienna, led to a new unity within the oppressed classes. This coupled, with the Industrial Revolution caused the lower classes to form an adversarial relationship with the fat cats of capitalism. As a way to reclaim power the lower classes rallied around the new idea of the nation-state causing an outburst of Nationalism and eventually resulting the unification of Italy and Germany. NATIONALISM Nationalism is the belief that peoples

greatest loyalty should not be to a king, but to a nation of people who share common history and culture Nationalism blurs the lines in political spectrum Invokes all parts of life: Culture, History, Language, Territory, Nationality, Religion Series of isms cause a major increase in nationalism, beginning w/ Rev. of 1848 Most involved major shift to left in political spectrum NATION-STATE When a nation, a group with a common culture or history, has its own independent government, it is called a nation-state

You can have nations without states (i.e. no government like Egypt, Libya, Liberia) and states without nations (i.e. no common land like Palestine, Poland 1939, Baltics during Cold War) In 1815, only a few nation-states existed in Europe. Britain, France, Sweden, Spain, etc. What is happening in LA at the same time? How are these isms impacting the area? Conservatism / Liberalism

Nationalism Post colonial blues & rise of caudillos INDUSTRIALISM & LATIN AMERICA Post colonial blues, liberalism, Progress, & The Great Export Boom LA THESIS!

Faced with the possibility to create modern liberal states, post-revolutionary Latin American governments tried, but did not have the political or social backing to make radical change. The result was a lapse back into conservative rule. When that became unpopular, liberals turned the tide and tried to benefit the people of Latin America. However, new Victorian values or industry, free trade, Progress, and social class only curtailed the rights of the lowest classes, causing the rich to get richer and consigning Latin America to a status a supplier of materials but not a producer of important goods and services.

POST COLONIAL BLUES & RISE OF CAUDILLOS 1800s have independence, but now what the post colonial blues Brazil will be bit of an exception, make comparisons as we go though this information Immediate impact of revolutions: liberalism (i.e. modern liberal state) Fails miserably America for Americans?!? Largely due to fact liberalism was instituted as a reaction to societal reforms in Europe & LA was largely a traditional society Church vs. state is the perfect exampleliberals want public schools, conservatives want the Church to control education

conservatives make this a winning issue because the Church has so much control in the society POST COLONIAL BLUES Immediate impact of revolutions: liberalism (i.e. modern liberal state) - continued Fact economics/class doesnt get better after independence hurts a lot too This had been a promise of creoles during revolutions Creoles dont take over most of trade, instead allow foreign powers (US, Britain, France, etc.) to come in; creoles mainly invest in land Infrastructure is terrible & terrain un-navigable in most countries Within years almost all governments were legally or illegally overthrown in favor of

traditional, conservative rule People saw political office as a path to personal enrichment Rigging elections becomes very, very common (patronage too) Led to rise of caudillos RISE OF THE CAUDILLOS Caudillo party leader who achieved virtual dictatorial rule (through legal election) thanks to patronage politics & kickbacks. Usually a charismatic, uppermiddle class Creole, war hero who personified traditional machismo qualities but had a knack for communication with the lower classes Rosas (Argentina) & Santa Anna two most

prominent examples Caudillo rule tended to use propaganda, could use both hard (violence) and soft (ostracization) power to extract votes CAUDILLOJUAN MANUEL DE ROSAS Dictator of Argentina from 18351852 Became popular during the war of independence Famously kicked British & French interventions out in 1830s & 1840s Exiled intellectuals & political opposition curtailed elections, freedom of press, etc.

Patronage = Buenos Aires prospered, not the rest of Argentina Finally overthrown militarily by a coalition in 1852 SARMIENTO READING 1.How does the reading relate to Rosas? 2.What does Sarmiento think of the Gaucho? 3.What is he

arguing for/against? MEXICAN AMERICAN WAR & THE MEXICAN EMPIRE Seeing problems in Mexico with caudillo rule, US fakes an international incident and declares war on Mexico All or parts of Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Nevada, Colorado & California seceded to US Leads to sweep of liberalism into Mexican politics & the rise of Benito Juarez Juarez is mestizo from rural Mexico who is selfeducated and comes to be accepted by upper middle class

Eventually becomes president of Mexico Passes series of reform laws that mainly directed curbing corruption & the power of military & power of church (Juarez & Lerdo Laws) MEXICAN AMERICAN WAR & THE MEXICAN EMPIRE Unhappy conservatives seize presidency in coup (1858-67) Opens up Mexico to invasion by Napoleon III & France who try to install Maximillian as emperor of Mexico Juarez runs, fights guerilla war,

gets the help of the US, eventually retakes power, captures and executes Maximillian REACTION TO CAUDILLOS: RISE OF LIBERALISM & PROGRESS By mid century (1850s) tide begins to change in favor of a return to liberalism Partially due to a simple pendulum swing; partially due to a increase in interest in the Industrial RevolutionEuropeans saw LA as a market for their new, mass produced goods Conservatives had also failed to bring much of a lifestyle change to the lower classes Liberalism tries to bring infrastructure (steam

power) to Latin America Works better in some countries than others Usually based around getting raw materials from LA to Europe (i.e. theyll like one railroad that goes from the main city on the exterior into the place where raw materials are worked and back) Factories and production of raw materials still very rare REACTION TO CAUDILLOS: RISE OF LIBERALISM & PROGRESS All this done under the new mantra of the day: Progress Denunciation of caudillo rule; look to European ideas, etc. as a movement

forward; past = bad, future = good Led by Domingo Faustino Sarmiento, rooted in education You read an excerpt from his writings what does it say? End result is still upper-middle class gets richer and others dont TRIPLE ALLIANCE WAR Wars fought over land, territory & natural resourcesshow the importance of raw materials to upper middle classes and Progress Triple Alliance War & War of the Pacific Triple Alliance War (1865-1870):

Bloodiest war fought on South American continent Paraguay vs. Argentina, Brazil & Uruguay Allies fought to topple (insane) dictator who they feared but it was really more of a land and resources grab Used modern weapons and death rate astronomically high Wiped out an entire generation of Paraguayan males Upset lower classes who felt like cannon fodder Solidifies Argentina as THE power in Southern America (leads to Argentinian Exceptionalism on the 20th century) WAR OF THE PACIFIC War of the Pacific (1879-1884):

Pretty much same as the Triple Alliance War, but this time between Chile & Paraguay Chilean land grab gives them natural resources to fund a liberal government for the next 40 years; Chile now controls most of South Western coast BRAZILS DIFFERENT PATH One country not to have a major revolution was Brazil Note: with Pedro I & II nothing changed So, Brazil took a different 19 t h century trajectory with a monarchy/nobility, tight

relations between church and state, and most importantly slavery Basically theyd never had an Enlightenment Also, Brazilian plantations had escaped the violence of other revolutions and had very low labor costs by 1840 Brazil is producing 2/3rds of the worlds coffee Creoles vs. Peninsulars still key; anti-Portuguese rioting gains steam, republics declared, slaves join the cause BRAZILS DIFFERENT PATH Liberals do an about face, lock ranks, and put down the insurrection decolonization stops and Brazil stays an empire with slaves for

another generation Triple Alliance War begins to change the mood of the populace and reawaken liberalism Pedro II was an Enlightened Despot, so hes nominally in favor of this Begins with Free Birth Lawanyone born to a slave would be free Brazil becomes last place in Americas to outlaw slavery in 1888 Empire falls to the republic Nov. 1889; Pedro, etc. go back to Portugal THE LIBERATION OF CUBA Starting in 1868, Cuba began a series of three wars for Independence

Cuba was the only country not freed from Europe by 1830 Also, until 1959 Cuba was the closest ally to the US in the Americas First one changed little, but Spain did have to release control some, most notably outlawing slavery in 1886 Real insurrection begins in 1895 with the following proclamation: 1.) The war will be waged by both blacks and whites participation by all is necessary; 2.) Spaniards who did not object to the war would be spared; 3.) economic life should be brought to Cuba

THE LIBERATION OF CUBA Lead by Jos Mart, a poet, and founder of Our American movement (more on this later) Killed in battle in 1895elevates him to martyr status Spain does not spare the civilians, leading to bad PR The extent of this in unclear because of journalistic sensationalism (known as Yellow Journalism) USS Maine explodes in the Havana harbor under unclear circumstancesRemember the Mainegiving mild pretext for war US takes down 500 year old empire in 17 weeks Promises Cuba independence but never fully gives it

Cuba remains US client state until the Castros, etc. land in 1953 THE GREAT EXPORT BOOM Liberalisms infrastructure + Progress + the rush for resources leads to Great Export Boom (1870-1930) Long sustained period of major economic growth Examples: Mexican trade grew 900%; Brazil exports 2/3rds of the worlds coffee; Argentinas wheat production increases 1,000 fold Quantity of railroad track goes from 2,000

miles to 59,000 miles between 1870-1900 Rich get richer; natural resources become hot commodity of the day, still not much factory production (save 4-5 cities) NEOCOLONIALISM Limits: All this hurts the small farmers who are now being forced to sell or being kicked off their land to make way for both commodities & Progress Example: by 1910 only about 3% of Mexicans actually owned land Forced into small sharecropping farming Indigenous people who had fled from Europeans

into the inner territories, also evicted Countries often set up favorable tax systems to attract international corporations, hurting the poor & forcing them to pay higher taxes to compensate i.e. Banana Republics All this dovetails with Victorian values or gender roles, as well as new ideas like LATIN AMERICA IN THE 1800S Create some sort of visual that depicts what happened in Latin America during the 1800s Could be cartoon, boxes for

different themes, etc. On the back side write a thesis regarding Latin America in the 1800s Put your names on it and have it to the inbox by 12:23 MAZZINI ON NATIONALITY 1.According to Mazzini what is nationalism (give total definition)? Paraphrase his ideas 2.What is Mazzinis argument? How does he lay it out?

Paraphrase and find quote(s) to support it

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