Multi-Core CPUs

Multi-Core CPUs

Multi-Core CPUs Matt Kuehn Roadmap Intel vs AMD Early multi-core processors Threads vs Physical Cores Multithreading and Multi-core processing Current development direction Passmark benchmarks

Conclusion Intel Founded July 1968 Integrated Electronics Largest provider of CPUs Inventor of the x86 architecture First commercial microprocessor chip in

1971 CISC CISC Complex Instruction Set Computing Emphasis on hardware Memory to Memory operations Commands that are operations Ex) MULT X*Y translates to x = x * y Small

code size AMD Advanced Micro Devices Founded May 1969 Second largest supplier of microprocessors Merged with ATI Technologies in 2006 Only significant rival to Intel in CPU Market

RISC RISC Reduced Instruction Set Computing Emphasis on software Register to Register operations Similar to COSC 300 Commands that are single steps

Ex LOAD X, LOAD Y, PROD X,Y, STORE X Simple code operations translate to lengthy Pentium 4 HT First mainstream solution to add an additional core

One core on the chip Used HyperThreading Technology Two logical or virtual CPUs OS can schedule two processes at the same time First Dual Core Processor Opteron server CPU

First demonstrated in August 2004 Created by AMD Dual Core Demonstration machine was a server powered by 4 Opteron chips WHAT?! So whats the difference between a core and a thread??? Core Essentially

a CPU Has own resources Registers, cache, etc Everything a physical CPU would have ALU Control Unit Clock Costly

to add to chip Thread Essentially a virtual CPU Does not have any physical resources Shares resources with a physical core Inexpensive compared to a Core Does not provide the same throughput as a physical Core

High improvement to cost ratio Multi Core Processing Exploit concurrency to spread work Running tasks = Processors in a system Improves absolute performance Optimal single core processor leads to a new CPU with multiple optimal single cores

Multithreading Also exploit concurrency of multiple tasks Processor level optimization Improve area and energy efficiency Replicates resources virtually Slightly larger chip, greatly increased performance Ex) 15% increase in area leads to 60% increase in throughput

Current Direction Intel Multiple Physical Cores Threads Current high end: Core i7 4 Cores 8 Threads of execution

AMD Multiple Physical Cores Multi-core processing Current high end: FX 8-Core 8 physical cores Passmark

Released late 2002 Passmark Released 2004 Released 2011

Conclusion Intel vs AMD RISC and CISC Early solutions to Multi-Core CPUs Physical and Logical Threads

vs Cores Multithreading vs Milti-Core processing Benchmark testing via Passmark Questions? References

http://www.amd.com/us/press-releases/Pages/Press_Release_89872.a spx http://www.intel.com/content/www/us/en/company-overview/compan y-facts.html http://www.amd.com/us/aboutamd/corporate-information/Pages/ corporate-info.aspx http://www-cs-faculty.stanford.edu/~eroberts/courses/soco/projects/ risc/risccisc/ http://eetimes.com/design/automotive-design/4004762/Demystifyingmultithreading-and-multi-core http://www.passmark.com/

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