Ethics, Moral Reasoning and Moral Development Ethics The system of rules that governs the ordering of values. Addresses such questions as: What are the meanings of the ethical concepts of good and right? How can a person reach a conclusion about an
ethical dilemma? Do ethical dilemmas have answers that would be universally accepted as right, proper, and appropriate? Ethics Universalism States that individuals should uphold certain values, like honesty,
regardless of the results. The important values are the ones society needs to function. (Rule based or deontological, an inherent right apart from any consequences.) Utilitarianism States
that the greatest good for society should be the overriding concern of decision makers. (Consequential, or teleological) emphasizes the results of behavior.) Ethics
Justice Theories State moral standards are based upon the primacy of a single value, which is justice. Everyone should act to ensure a more equitable distribution of benefits, for this promotes self-respect, essential for social
cooperation. The Four Way Test 1. Is it the TRUTH? 2. Is if FAIR to all concerned? 3. Will it build GOODWILL and better friendships? 4. Will it be BENEFICIAL to all concerned?
Moral Reasoning The thinking processes involved in judgments about questions of right and wrong. Kohlbergs work (63, 75, 81): Divided moral development into three levels
Moral Reasoning Pre-conventional Judgment based solely on a persons own needs and perceptions Conventional Expectations of society and law are taken into account Post-Conventional
Judgment based on abstract, personal principles not necessarily defined by societys laws. Kohlbergs Moral Dilemmas Hypothetical situations in which no choice is clearly and indisputably right. The Heinz Dilemma
A mans wife is dying. There is one drug that could save her life, but it is very expensive, and the druggist who invented it will not sell it at a price low enough for the man to buy it. Finally, the man becomes desperate and considers stealing the drug for his wife. What should he do and why? Kohlbergs Work
Stage 1 (Pre conventional) Punishment-obedience orientation Fear of authority and avoidance of punishment are reasons for behaving morally. Stage 2 (Pre conventional) Personal reward orientation Satisfying personal needs determines moral choice.
Kohlbergs Work Stage 3 (Conventional) Good boy-nice girl orientation Maintaining the affection and approval of friends and relatives motivates good behavior Stage 4 (Conventional) Law and order/authority orientation A duty to uphold rules and laws for their own sake justifies
moral conformity Kohlbergs Work Stage 5 (Post conventional) Social contract orientation We obey rules because they are necessary for social order, but rules can be changed if there were better alternatives
Stage 6 (Post conventional) Morality of individual principles and conscience Behavior which conforms to internal principles (justice and equality) and may sometimes violate societys rules. Carol Gilligan In a Different Voice 1977, 1981
Moral reasoning is delimited by ...two moral perspectives that organize thinking in different ways. Men: define morality in terms of justice. Women: less in terms of rights and more in terms of standards of responsibility and care. Gilligans Perspective: Males = typically a justice/rights orientation
Females = care response orientation Orientations arise form rational experiences of inequality and attachment Girls attached to and identify with mothers Boys attached to mothers and identify with fathers Believes that: That response orientation is of a higher order than justice rights orientation
Because Kohlbergs theory is hierarchical with justice/rights the basis--women would necessarily show a less reasoned perspective on his scales. First studies of Kohlberg only conducted with men The two perspectives are not opposite ends of a continuum, ...with justice uncaring and caring unjust..., but rather, ...a different
method of organizing the basic elements of moral judgment: self, others, and the relationship between them. (Gilligan, 1987, p.22) One moral perspective dominates psychological thinking and is embedded in the most widely used
measures for measuring maturity of moral reasoning. C. Gilligan, 1987, p.22 Gilligans Theory Based on two observational studies. Study One: 25 college students Study Two: 29 women considering
abortion Gilligans Research: shift[s] the focus of attention from ways people reason about hypothetical dilemmas to ways people construct moral conflicts and choice in their lives...and [makes] it possible to see what experiences people define in moral terms, and to explore the
relationship between the understanding of moral problems and the reasoning strategies used and the actions taken in attempting to solve them. Gilligan, 1987, p.21 Alternative Stage Sequence: Three levels with transitional phases between each:
Level One: Complete concern for self (Individual Survival). Transitional Phase: From self to care and concern for others. Level Two Level Two:
Primary interest in the care of others (to gain their acceptance) (Self sacrifice and Social conformity). Transitional Phase: awareness of self relative to developing relationships with others:
responsibility toward their care and needs. Level Three Level Three: Nonviolence and universal caring. articulates an ethic of responsibility that
focuses on the actual consequences of choice,,,the criterion of adequacy or moral principles changes from objective truth to best fit, and can only be established within the context of the dilemma itself. Murphy and Gilligan, 1980, p.83 Good Points: Concept of care giving and nurturing
Relationship of self to others, responsibility Empathy Effect on environment Problems: Walkers Response (1984, p.679) Unfortunately, the only data that have been presented as yet to support this proposed stage sequence have been anecdotal...None of the usual types of
evidence for a stage sequence (i.e. longitudinal, cross-sectional, or experimental) has been reported...Nor has she provided an explanation as to why makes and females may develop different orientations to moral judgment. Flanagans Response 1982, p.511: One has to wonder why in two decades of
research by hundreds of Kohlbergians this new stage was not noticed before...One has to fear the existence of the Rosenthal effect--fear, that is, that the experimenters preferences may have carried the data rather than the other way around. Research Problems: Non-random sample selection
Rosenthal Effect, Hawthorne Effect Determination of stage theory through subjective interviewing techniques. Non-replication of findings Hawthorne Effect: Subjects may try harder simply because they are in the control group.
Rosenthal Effect: Researchers biases tend to sway the results to be what the researcher wants to find Research Problems continued... Small sample sizes Generalizations from Case study, interview
approach Only evaluated women... Her later writings do not support earlier work (1987 on). Has led to a blind following by supporters... Rather than arguing over the extent to which sex bias is inherent in Kohlbergs theory of moral development, it might be more appropriate to
ask why the myth that males are more advanced in moral reasoning than females persists in light of such little evidence. Walker, 1984, p.688 Gilligans response: Response orientation morally superior Two orientations are fundamentally incompatible, but ones that are equally valid and acceptable for the respective sexes
Complimentary perspectives maintained in some dynamic tension Each orientation is deficient without the other 3. No specified mechanism for development 4. Politically dangerous to say that sexes differ in their basic life orientations 5. How does the ethic of care include notions of impartiality and generalizability?
6. The two orientations are logically and psychologically incompatible.(perhaps alpha bias--tendency to exaggerate differences) 7. Gilligans definition of Kohlbergs justice/rights orientation may be inadequate and unrepresentative of his theory. Kohlbergs Moral stage theory:
He neither predicts nor requires sex differences in either developmental pathway or rate of development. Order through stages = invariant, hierarchical, universal. Determinant of Rate Attainment of prerequisite levels of cognitive and perspective taking development---moral reasoning has a basis in cognition. Studies indicate the attainment of moral stage requires the
prior or concomitant attainment of the parallel cognitive and perspective taking stage. Interaction provide the cognitive and social disequilibrium needed to induce development Experiences arise through interpersonal relationships with family, friends, participation in economic, political, legal institutions, education, occupation, citizenship..
Sources of sex bias in these two theories: Sex of the theorist (is it possible that a theorist may not fully and adequately describe the moral thinking of persons of the opposite sex?) The Ideological basis for the moral theory. Kohlberg--western moral philosophy/liberal social science Gilligan -- contemporary feminism
Measure of moral functioning advocated by the approach: Kohlberg: hypothetical dilemmas, unfamiliar issues, detached emotional involvement Kohlberg: male protagonists Gilligan: reliance on participants recall discussion of actual dilemmas from their personal experience Gilligans dilemmas = idiosyncratic-interpretation of individuals; reasoning is fraught with confounds.
The original sample upon which the theories constructs were derived. Kohlberg = male samples Gilligan = female samples
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