# Modern Systems Analysis and Design Ch8

Modern Systems Analysis and Design Fourth Edition Jeffrey A. Hoffer Joey F. George Joseph S. Valacich Chapter 8 Structuring System Logical Requirements 2005 by Prentice Hall

Learning Objectives Use structured English as a tool for representing steps in logical processes in data flow diagrams. Use decision tables and decision trees to represent logical choice in conditional statements. Select among structured English, decision tables, and decision trees. 8-2 2005 by Prentice Hall 8-3

2005 by Prentice Hall Logic Modeling Data flow diagrams do not show the logic inside the processes. Logic modeling involves representing internal structure and functionality of processes depicted on a DFD. Logic modeling can also be used to show when processes on a DFD occur. 8-4 2005 by Prentice Hall

Logic Modeling Deliverables and Outcomes Structured English Decision Tables Decision Trees State-transition diagrams Sequence diagrams Activity diagrams 8-5 2005 by Prentice Hall Modeling Logic with

Structured English Modified form of English used to specify the logic of information processes Uses a subset of English Action verbs Noun phrases No adjectives or adverbs No specific standards 8-6

2005 by Prentice Hall 8-7 2005 by Prentice Hall Structured English is used here to describe input and output. 8-8 2005 by Prentice Hall

Structured English is used here to describe arithmetic operations. 8-9 2005 by Prentice Hall Structured English is used here to describe repetition. 8-10

2005 by Prentice Hall Structured English is used here to describe decisions. 8-11 2005 by Prentice Hall Structured English is used here to describe invoking other processes.

8-12 2005 by Prentice Hall Modeling Logic with Decision Tables A matrix representation of the logic of a decision Specifies the possible conditions and the resulting actions Best used for complicated decision logic 8-13

2005 by Prentice Hall 3 Parts of a Decision Table 1. Condition stubs Lists condition relevant to decision 2. Action stubs Actions that result from a given set of conditions

3. Rules Specify which actions are to be followed for a given set of conditions Indifferent Condition 8-14 Condition whose value does not affect which action is taken for two or more rules

2005 by Prentice Hall Procedure for Creating Decision Tables Name the condition and values each condition can assume Name all possible actions that can occur List all rules Define the actions for each rule Simplify the table 8-15 2005 by Prentice Hall

Decision Table Note: for salaried employees the action stub chosen will always be the sametherefore hours worked is an indifferent condition 8-16 2005 by Prentice Hall Reduced Decision Table 8-17 Because of indifferent condition, the complete decision table

can be reduced to one with fewer rules 2005 by Prentice Hall Modeling Logic with Decision Trees A graphical representation of a decision situation Decision situation points are connected together by arcs and terminate in ovals Main components

8-18 Decision points represented by nodes Actions represented by ovals Particular choices from a decision point represented by arcs 2005 by Prentice Hall Modeling Logic with Decision Trees (cont.) Read from left to right Each node corresponds to a numbered choice on a legend All possible actions are listed on the far

right 8-19 2005 by Prentice Hall Decision tree representation of salary decision 8-20 2005 by Prentice Hall Alternative decision tree representation of

salary decision 8-21 2005 by Prentice Hall Deciding Among Structured English, Decision Tables, and Decision Trees Criteria 8-22 Structured Decision English

Tables Decision Trees Determining Second Best Conditions and Actions Third Best Best

Transforming Best Conditions and Actions into Sequence Third Best Best Checking Consistency and Completeness

Best Best Third Best 2005 by Prentice Hall Deciding Between Decision Tables and Decision Trees 8-23

Criteria Decision Tables Decision Trees Portraying complex logic Best Worst Portraying simple Worst rules

Best Making decisions Worst Best More compact Best Worst Easier to manipulate

Best Worst 2005 by Prentice Hall Summary In this chapter you learned how to:

8-24 Use structured English as a tool for representing steps in logical processes in data flow diagrams. Use decision tables and decision trees to represent logical choice in conditional statements. Select among structured English, decision tables, and decision trees. 2005 by Prentice Hall

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