Microbiology : Unit #2 : Bacteria

Microbiology : Unit #2 : Bacteria

Bacteria Bacteria are small living organisms found almost everywhere on the earth. Bacteria are prokaryotes which are typically unicellular. *There are more bacteria living in your mouth than there are people living on Earth! Classification of Bacteria Bacteria are classified

into two major Kingdoms : Archaebacteria and Eubacteria. Archaebacteria : live without oxygen, and obtain their energy from inorganic compounds. Archaebacteria Archaebacteria can survive

and thrive in harsh environments. Examples of archaebacteria include : methaneproducting bacteria in cows stomachs, salt-loving bacteria, and heat and acid loving bacteria which thrive in hot springs. Archaebacteria Archaebacteria found in the stomachs of cows allow

for the cow to break down and digest the cellulose in plant cells. These bacteria help cows turn cellulose into glucose. The bacteria produce methane gas in this process. Eubacteria Eubacteria differ from Archaebacteria in differences of cell

walls, plasma membrane, and sequence of DNA bases. Eubacteria Most common bacteria are classified as eubacteria. Eubacteria include the phostosynthetic bacteria called cyanobacteria.

Bacteria Structure Bacteria have different shapes and structures, but structures found in bacteria include : Flagella (some) Capsule (some)

Cell wall Plasma membrane DNA Pili (some) Bacteria Shapes Most bacteria are found in colonies. Bacteria can be round, spiral, or rod shaped. Round : coccus Spiral : spirillum

Rod : bacillus Bacteria are also classified into the shape of groups or colonies they form. Diplo : paired cells Staphylo: grapelike clusters Strepto: long chains Bacteria Reproduce by: Conjugation (Sexual) Binary Fission In conjugation one bacteria

(Asexual) is able to transfer its DNA into another bacteria by means of a pilus (pili) Binary fission involves the copying of the DNA and the splitting into two new cells. Bacteria Reproduction Under optimum

conditions bacteria can reproduce every 20 minutes. Bacteria reproduction is controlled by various factors including : temperature and food availability. Bacteria- Cell Wall Structure Bacteria are divided into two groups based upon the

composition of their cell walls. Gram positive : two layers ( lipid, peptidoglycan sugar/ amino acids network) Gram negative : three layers, lipid, peptidoglycan, and lipopolysaccharide. Gram + Gram -

Antibiotics Most antibiotics aim to break down part of the cell wall to cause water to move in and rupture the bacteria cell. Penicillin is one bacteria to work this way. Bacteria

One major role of bacteria in the envrironment is to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere into a useable form for plants. Rhizobium bacteria live on legume roots. Bacteria - Decomposers Bacteria break down organic matter in dead organisms.

These heterotrophic bacteria help recycle nutrients from dead plants and animals back into the soil. Bacteria help break down leaves into useable compounds in the soil. Bacteria Bacteria also are used to make antibiotics. Some helpful bacteria will

produce chemicals which will kill pathogenic bacteria. Streptomycin and erythromycin are a few examples of antibiotics made from bacteria. Bacteria Caused Diseases Bacteria can cause the following diseases:

Tuberculosis

Pneumonia Strep throat Staph infections Scarlet fever Syphilis Gonorrhea Chlamydia Boils Tetanus Lyme disease Ear infections

Bacteria and Disease Bubonic Plague/Black Death. In the 1330s the bubonic plague originated in China. This disease caused by bacteria spread quickly to England and other parts of present day Europe. This bacteria was mainly found on rodents but fleas are thought to have carried it to humans.

Bubonic Plague The bubonic plague killed an estimated 1/3rd of all Europeans. The bacteria caused boils which started as red bumbs on the skin, and then turned into black dots. Black Death. The bacteria Yersinia pestis is thought to have

caused this disease. Exit Slip 1. What is the name of this bacteria? 2. What is the name of this bacteria? 3. Draw a staphylobacillus bacterial colony.

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