Membranes: Epithelial tissue + Connective tissue Mucus membranes Serous membranes Cutaneous membranes Synovial membranes

Mucous Membranes Mucous membranes (mucosae) Line organs with connections to the outside environment (mouth, intestines, nasal passages, etc.) Usually composed of either stratified squamous or simple columnar epithelium covering a layer of loose connective tissue

Submucosa : connective tissue layer that connects the mucosa to underlying structures Mucous Membranes Mucous membranes (mucosae) May contain goblet cells or multicellular glands Can produce large quantities of mucus Mucus consists primarily of water, electrolytes, and

the protein mucin Some mucosae also can absorb (e.g., the epithelial layer in the intestine) Serous Membranes Serous membranes (serosae)

Line walls and cover organs of body cavities (e.g., thorax and abdominopelvic cavities) Consist of a continuous sheet doubled over on itself to form two layers

Pericardium Pleura Peritoneum

The portion of the membrane that covers the outer surface of organs is called the visceral layer. The portion of the membrane that lines the cavity wall is called the parietal layer.

Serosal Fluid Serous fluid watery, thin, composed of water and enzymes Creates moist, slippery surface, reduces friction between organs and cavity surfaces Serous fluid is called transudate

Location of transudate Thorax pleural fluid Abdomen peritoneal fluid Heart pericardial fluid Some medical terms Hemothorax Injury to thoracic cavity, such as broken rib, the

blood and other cells leak from ruptured capillaries into the pleural space and create a hemothorax Effusion excessive fluid Abdominal Cavity called ascites Thoracic Cavity called pleural effusion Heart pericardial effusion Causes congestive heart failure, peritonitis

Transudate: A fluid that passes through a membrane, which filters out all the cells and much of the protein, yielding a watery solution. A transudate is a filtrate of blood. It is due to increased pressure in the veins and capillaries that forces fluid through the vessel walls or to a low level of protein in blood serum.

Transudate accumulates in tissues outside the blood vessels and causes edema (swelling). Cutaneous Membrane Also called integument (or, more simply, skin) Composed of an outer keratinized stratified squamous epithelium, or epidermis

Epidermis is attached to an underlying layer of dense irregular connective tissue called the dermis. Dermis contains collagenous, reticular, and elastic fibers which enable skin to be both strong and elastic Diagnosing by mucous membrane

clues: Are they Dry or Moist? Dehydration = dry, tacky Capillary Refill Time- the time it takes for blood to return to the capillaries >2 sec low blood pressure, compromised cardiac output < 1 sec high blood pressure, hypercompensated

state Synovial Membranes Line the cavities of joints Composed of loose connective tissue and adipose tissue covered by a layer of collagen fibers and fibroblasts Manufacture the synovial fluid that fills the joint

spaces No epithelial cells! What Color? Yellow = elevated bilirubin icterus (condition), juandice (appearance) can be caused by liver failure, hemolytic anemia

Blue = lack of oxygen, tissues are not receiving adequate oxygen (obstruction, pneumonia airways) called hypoxia Bright Red = increased blood flow (allergic reaction, fever), the term for this is hyperfused hyperemia White/ Pale = anemia, shock, hypothermia

Muscle Tissue Composed of specialized proteins actin and myosin fibers Three types of muscle tissue Skeletal Smooth Cardiac

Skeletal Muscle Large cells (foot long or more!)that contain hundreds of nuclei and mitochondria Usually controlled through conscious efforts (voluntary muscle) Skeletal muscle cells are striated. Skeletal muscle cells are bundles of fibers held together by loose connective tissue.

Voluntary Striated Muscle Smooth Muscle Composed of small, spindle-shaped cells that lack striations Smaller cells than skeletal muscle Muscle contractions cannot be consciously controlled (nonstriated involuntary muscle)

Found in the walls of hollow organs, in exocrine glands, and along the respiratory tract Responsible for peristalsis in gastrointestinal tract, constriction of blood vessels, and emptying of urinary bladder

Cardiac Muscle Found only in the heart Also smaller cells Entirely involuntary and striated Cardiac muscle cells connected to one another via intercalated disks (intercellular junction)

Nervous Tissue Found in the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves Composed of two general cell types: Neurons Supporting neuroglial cells

Nervous Tissue Neurons Longest cells in the body; three primary parts: Perikaryon the cell body; contains the nucleus Dendrites short cytoplasmic

extensions; receives impulses Axons long, single extension; conducts impulses away from the cell body Neuroglial cells Support the neurons

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