Medieval Timeline Part I - Global Studies

Medieval Timeline Part I - Global Studies

Medieval Timeline Part I The Early Middle Ages: 500 to 1000 What lead to the Middle Ages? 353 Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire. 400s Germanic tribes began a mass migration into the Roman Empire. A barbarian invasion. The Roman army could not withstand the invasion of their boarders. 500 The fall of the Roman Empire (the

western part, the Byzantine Empire still stood). People headed for the countryside & started farming. Everything disintegrated (fell apart): Central Government, law, schools, industry, trade, the use of money. The only institution left standing was the Christian Church! Latin was the official language of the Church. The Early Middle Ages: 500 to 1000 Barbarian Kingdoms: The Angles and Saxons set up a barbarian kingdom in England. (They originally came from Germany.) The Franks set up a barbarian kingdom in France.

The Germanic Barbarians lived in tribes. Each Tribe kept its own customs and laws. Their tribal structure evolved into feudalism. They originated all the feudal practices: Lordvassal system, kingship, knighthood, chivalry. Barbarian warlords first ruled men; then they ruled territory. 600Saint Augustine Throughout Northern Europe, Christian monks converted the pagan barbarians to Christianity. From Rome, St. Augustine traveled to England and spread Christianity throughout England. He founded

Canterbury Cathedral and became the first Archbishop of Canterbury. Ever since, Canterbury has been Englands religious center. The cathedral became a holy place visited by many pilgrims. Around 1400, Chaucer wrote the Canterbury Tales, about a fictional group of pilgrims. 700Beowulf the first great work of English literature, sung by minstrels. It glorified the warrior and defined the qualities most admired by the Anglo-Saxons. 711Muslims invade Spain. They ruled it for 700 years (711-1492) 732the Muslims invaded France. They were defeated in the Battle

of Tours. 800 c.e. Charlemagne He was the barbarian king of the Franks who conquered Western Europe. From the north France was attacked by Vikings, from the south France was attacked by Muslims. When Charlemagne died, his empire fell apart, but three things lived on:

He established the feudal system of government in France. He spread feudalism throughout Western Europe. He defended the Christian Church. HE was Champion of the Church. Coronation: He was crowned by the Pope, so the new (barbarians) were united with the old (Rome). Song of Roland- An epic poem about Charlemagne and his knights. Sung by troubadours, it glorified the knight. It defined, explained, and popularized the code of Chivalry. From then on, Chivalry became the ideal behavior of the nobility. 900Feudalism was the Lord-Vassal System Like Frankish kings before him, Charlemagne practiced the lord-vassal system: The vassal said: I swear to defend you.

The lord said: In return, I provide you with land and justice. The oath was held at a ceremony called investiture. The Feudal Contract: The oral oath was a feudal contract: If the vassal did not fulfill his contract (military service), he lost the land. If the lord did not fulfill his contract (provide justice), he lost the vassal. Western Europe was divided into large estates

Land was power: If you owned land, you were a nobleman. The nobility was the ruling class. The nobles were (in this order): Dukes, marquesses, counts (earls), viscounts, barons. Not all knights owned land, and thus were not considered part of the nobility. Each lord ruled his estate as if it were a little kingdom He was the government (collected taxes, made law, sole judge, had his won private army). Manoralism was the economic System Each manor was a self-sufficient economic unit.

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