MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY Dr. Michael P. Gillespie CATEGORIES OF MEDICAL TERMS D escriptive descriptive medical terms describes the shape, size, color, function etc. of the anatomical structure. E ponyms literally putting a name upon - are used to honor someone who first discovered or described an anatomical structure, diagnosed a disease, or developed a medical instrument or procedure. Eponyms give no useful information about what the item is or where it is located. EXAMPLES OF EPONYMS allopian tubes (uterine tubes) Gabriello Fallopio ustachean tubes (auditory tubes) Bartolommeo Eustachii OBJECTIVES
A nalyze words by dividing them into component parts. Do not simply memorize terms. Break words up into their component parts. R elate the medical terms to the structure and function of the human body. The medical terms will be easier to understand if you know their context in health and disease processes. B e aware of spelling and pronunciation problems. Some medical terms are pronounced alike, but spelled differently (i.e. ilium and ileum). Some medical terms are similar and a mispronunciation can lean to a misunderstanding (i.e. urethra and ureter). ELEMENTS OF MEDICAL TERMS R oot the root is the foundation of the word. All medical words have one or more roots.
P refix word beginning. Usually identifies some subdivision or part of the central meaning. S uffix word ending. Modifies the central meaning. C ombining vowel usuallu an o. Links the root to a suffix or another root. C ombining form combination of the root plus the combining vowel. WORD ROOT herm = heat ypothermia less heat
hermometer measuring heat EXAMPLE yocarditis refix Root Suffix yo = muscle card = heart it is = inflammation PREFIX CHANGE M yocarditis inflammation of the muscle layer of the heart P ericarditis inflammation of the outer layer of the heart E ndocarditis inflammation of the inner layer of the heart
SUFFIX CHANGE ardiologist a physician specializing in the heart ardiomyopathy damage to the heart muscle layer ardiomegaly enlargement of the heart 3 GENERAL RULES 1 . Read the meaning of the medical terms from the suffix back to the beginning of the term and across. 2 . Drop the combining vowel (usually o) before a suffix beginning with a vowel: gastritis not gastroitis. 3
. Keep the combining vowel between two roots: gastroenterology, not gastrentology. HEMATOLOGY EMAT oot / O / LOGY / Combining vowel / Suffix emat means blood and logy means the process of study. ematology means the process of study of blood.
ELECTROCARDIOGRAM Electr / o / cardi / o / gram Root / CV / Root / CV / Suffix Elect means electricity Cardi means heart Gram means record Electro
cardiogram means record of the electricity in the heart. GASTRITIS G astr / it is R oot / suffix G astr means stomach I t is means inflammation G astritis means inflammation of the stomach. GASTROENTEROLOGY G astr
/ o / enter / o / logy R oot CV Root CV Suffix G astr means stomach E nter means intestines L
ogy means the process of study G astroenterology means process of study of the stomach and intestines COMBINING FORMS Hemat / o Root / combining vowel Gastr / o Root / Cardi / o combining vowel
Root / combining vowel Combining forms are used with many different suffixes. PREFIXES Hypo / gastr / ic Root Prefix / Below / / Suffix stomach / pertaining to Hypogastric means pertaining to below the stomach
Epi / gastric Prefix / Above / Root stomach Epigastric means pertaining to above the stomach COMMON PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES Itis = inflammation (tonsillitis, appendicitis, hepatitis) Osis = abnormal condition (cyanosis) Ectomy = to
cut out [remove] (appendectomy, tonsillectomy) Otomy = to cut into (tracheotomy) Ostomy = to make a [mouth] (colostomy) A / an = without / none (anemia, areflexia) COMMON PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES Micro = small (microscopic) Macro = large (macroscopic) Mega / megaly = enlarged (megacolon, organomegaly) Scopy / scopic = to look / observe (colonoscopy) Graphy / graph = recording an image (mammography) Gram = the image (mammogram) Ology / ologist = study / specialize in (cardiologist, rheumatology)
WORD ROOTS FOR ORGANS Root Meaning Example Stomato Mouth Stomatitis Dento Teeth Dentist Glosso / linguo Tongue
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