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College English [email protected] Listening Lead in Listen to the passage and fill in the blanks. Key words and expressions: believe in , be taken off , adversity Answers: 1. program; 2. founded; 3. encourages; 4. failure; 5. achievements 6. athletes; 7. giving up; 8. humble;

9. talent; 10. career Unit 5 Ways to Success 2 Dialogue Samples Listen to the dialogue Key words and expressions: play a role, timing, aim at, without a doubt, contribute to, be conscious of, regret, regain, from a mental aspect

Unit 5 Ways to Success 3 Reading A: Warm Up Questions: 1. Who is Bill Gates? What do you know about him? 2. What role do you think school education plays in your life? 3. Do you want to pursue graduate study after you get your BA or BS? Explain. Unit 5 Ways to Success

4 Background information about the text: 1. Bill Gates (author) Gates, William Henry, III (1955- ) is an American business executive, who serves as chairman and chief software architect of Microsoft Corporation, the leading computer software company in the United States. Gates co-founded Microsoft in 1975 with high school friend Paul Allen. The companys success made Gates one of the most influential figures in the computer industry and, eventually, one of the richest people in the world.

Unit 5 Ways to Success 5 2. Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is a leading American computer software company. Microsoft deve lops and sells a wide variety of software pro ducts to businesses and consumers in more than 50 countries. The companys Windows operating systems for personal computers a re the most widely used operating systems i n the world. Microsoft has its headquarters i n Redmond, Washington. Microsofts other w ell-known products include Word, a word pro

cessor; Excel, a spreadsheet program; Acces s, a database program; and PowerPoint, a Unit 5 Ways to Success 6 program for making business presentations. These programs are sold separately and as part of Office, an integrated software suite. Microsofts Internet Explorer allows users to browse the World Wide Web. Among the companys other products are reference applications; games; financial software; programming languages for software developers; input devices, such as pointing

devices and keyboards; and computerrelated books. Unit 5 Ways to Success 7 3. The State of Ohio Ohio is one of the East North Central states of the United States. Ohio is located on seve ral main routes between the eastern and we stern United States. Therefore it attracted s ettlers from all parts of the country and dev eloped a culture significant for its diversity. Ohio first developed as an agricultural regio n, and more than half of the land is still dev

oted to growing crops and raising livestock. The states position on major east-west high ways and railroads and its access to Lake Er ie and the Ohio River, Unit 5 Ways to Success 8 however, offered a large potential market for industrial production. This strategic location, combined with the presence of abundant natural resources and potential sources of power, made possible the rise of the industrial concentrations that have made Ohio a leading industrial state.

Unit 5 Ways to Success 9 Reading A: Para 1-5 1. Hundreds of students send me e-mail each ye ar asking for advice about education. They w ant to know what to study, or whether it's ok ay to drop out of college since that's what I di d. 2. A smaller number of parents send messages, seeking guidance for their son or daughter. How can we steer our child toward succes s? they ask.

3. My basic advice is simple and heartfelt: Get th e best education you can. Take advantage of high school and college. Learn how to learn. Unit 5 Ways to Success 10 4. It's true that I dropped out of college to sta rt Microsoft, but I was at Harvard for three years before dropping outand I'd love t o have the time to go back. As I've said bef ore, nobody should drop out of college unle ss they believe they face the opportunity o f a lifetime. And even then they should rec onsider.

Unit 5 Ways to Success 11 opportunity: a favorable moment or occasio n (for doing something) Examples: It will give you an opportunity to meet all kinds of people. Don't let slip any opportunity to practic e your English. Unit 5 Ways to Success

12 5. Kathy Cridland, a sixth-grade teacher in Ohi o, wrote to say, Several of my students clai m that you never finished high school. Since you are a success, my students perceive that as a reason not to care much about getting a good education. claim: say that (sth.) is true or is a fact without having any proof Examples: Jean claims to own a car but I don't belie ve her. He claimed that he had done the work wi thout help.

Unit 5 Ways to Success 13 Reading A: Para 6-10 6. I finished high school! 7. The computer industry has lots of people wh o didn't finish college, but I'm not aware of a ny success stories that began with somebod y dropping out of high school. I actually do n't know any high school dropouts, let alone any successful ones. let alone: not to mention Examples: I have not even read the first chapter, le

t alone finished the book. The baby can't even walk, let alone run. Unit 5 Ways to Success 14 8. In my company's early years we had a bright part-time programmer who threatened to drop out of high school to work full-time. We told him no. 9. Quite a few of our people didn't finish college, but we discourage dropping out. Having a diploma certainly helps somebody who is looking to us for a job.

Unit 5 Ways to Success 15 discourage: prevent (an action) Examples: We discourage smoking in this school. We tried to discourage him from climbi ng the mountain without a guide. Unit 5 Ways to Success 16 10. College isn't the only place where informat

ion exists. You can learn in a library. But so mebody handing you a book doesn't autom atically foster learning. You want to learn wi th other people, ask questions, try out ideas and have a way to test your ability. It usuall y takes more than just a book. foster: help (something) to grow or develop Examples: Cooperative learning fosters a spirit of cooperation. The mother tried to foster her son's inte rest in music by taking him to concerts whe n he was young. Unit 5 Ways to Success

17 try out: test to find out about quality, wort h, effect, etc. Examples: I want to try out several of the new s ingers for the part. The new engine must be thoroughly tried out before being out on the market. Unit 5 Ways to Success 18 Reading A: Para 11-end

11. Education should be broad, although it's fine to have deep interests, too. 12. In high school there were periods when I was highly focused on writing software, but for most of my high school years I had wide-ranging academic interests. My parents encouraged this, and I'm grateful that they did. Unit 5 Ways to Success 19 focus on: direct one's attention to Examples:

Today we're going to focus on the questio n of homeless people in London. As we can't study all the resources, I propo se we focus attention on one of them. academic: scholarly, theoretical, not practical Examples: Academic exchanges are an important par t of cultural exchanges between two countries. His theory received little attention becaus e he was unknown in the academic world. Unit 5 Ways to Success 20

grateful: feeling or showing thanks Examples: I was most grateful to John for bringing the books. We are grateful to our neighbors for h elp in time of trouble. Unit 5 Ways to Success 21 13. Although I attended a lot of different kinds of classes in college, I signed up for only on e computer class the whole time. I read abo ut all kinds of things.

sign up: sign an agreement to take part in so mething Examples: We will not have the picnic unless mor e people sign up. How many people signed up for this co urse. Unit 5 Ways to Success 22 14. One parent wrote me that her 15-year-old son "lost himself in the hole of the compute r." He got an A in website design, but other

grades were sinking, she said. lose oneself in: be extremely interested in s omething Example: On a dull winter afternoon, Harry would sit by the fire and lose himself in a book. Boys tend to lose themselves in compu ter games. Unit 5 Ways to Success 23 15.This boy is making a mistake. High school and college offer you the best chance to lea rn broadly math, history, various science

s and to do projects with other kids that t each you first-hand about group dynamics. I t's fine to take a deep interest in computers, dance, language or any other discipline, but not if it jeopardizes breadth. Unit 5 Ways to Success 24 16. If you fall into an obsessive pattern in high school, you've got two problems. One is that you're unlikely to change when you go to college. The other is that if you don't get reasonably good grades, it's hard to go

to a college that has the highly motivated, capable students who can really help you learn about the world. Unit 5 Ways to Success 25 fall into: pass into a specified state Example: You have fallen into a bad habit of rep eating yourself. If you fall into heavy smoking, you'll g et healthy problems. capable: having ability of doing or the powe

r to do Examples: She is extremely capable and dependa ble. This computer is capable of storing mil lions of bits of information. Unit 5 Ways to Success 26 17. In college it's appropriate to think about specialization. Getting real expertise in an area of interest can lead to success unless the specialty ends up being a dead end or you're not good at. Graduate school

is one way to get specialized knowledge, although extended college education isn't always a good investment from a purely economic standpoint. Unit 5 Ways to Success 27 appropriate: correct or suitable Examples: Plain, simple clothes are appropriate fo r school wear. It seemed appropriate to end with a jok e.

lead to: have as a result; cause Examples: A bad cold can lead to pneumonia. Hard work leads to success. Unit 5 Ways to Success 28 Exercises: Content Awareness Part II Answer the following questions with the information from the passage. 1.Why do many students write to Bill Gates every year? They want to get is advice about education.

2. Why do some parents write to Bill Gates ? They want to get guidance for their children. 3.What does Bill Gates think of dropping out of school? He discourages it. Unit 5 Ways to Success 29 4. Which university did Bill Gates go to? Did he graduate with a degree? He went to Harvard but he dropped out in his junior year. 5. Many students choose to work for a

while before going to a university. What do you think of this? Unit 5 Ways to Success 30 Part III Choose the best answer to each question based on the information you obtain from the passage. 1. What does Gates mean by "education counts"? A) Education teaches us how to count numbers. B) Education is important to everyone.

C) One learns by getting an education. D) Education is the only way to success. Unit 5 Ways to Success 31 2. From the passage we know that __________. A) many people are interested in the success story of Gates B) Gates dropped out of college because he didn't do well C) the smart part-time programmer dropped out of school

D) Gates is going back to Harvard to get a degree Unit 5 Ways to Success 32 3. Gates tells us that __________. A) Microsoft Corp. has some successful high school dropouts B) Microsoft Corp. doesn't care much about school education and diplomas C) he encouraged the bright part-time programmer to drop out of school D) it is easier to get a job with a college

diploma than without one Unit 5 Ways to Success 33 4. According to Gates, __________. A) one learns better in a library B) one learns better by self-study C) one learns better by going to school D) it's bad to have many interests Unit 5 Ways to Success 34

5. It can be inferred from the passage that __________. A) good universities usually get smart and capable students B) one gets specialized knowledge from graduate school C) one learns broadly at both high school and college D) it's fine to become deeply interested in one specific area Unit 5 Ways to Success 35

Answers: 1. B; 2. A; 3. D; 4. C; 5. A Unit 5 Ways to Success 36 Exercises: Language Focus Part IV Fill in the blanks with the words give n below. Change the form where necessa ry. purely perceive discourage

dynami cs unlikely specialty reasonably sin k extended actually 1. The economy in that country ___ deeper and d eeper into crisis. 2. My father was a historian and his ___ was the history of Germany. 3. They decided to close the museum ___ and si mply because it cost too much to run. Unit 5 Ways to Success 37

4. The local government has decided on new me asures to ___ car use in favour of public tran sportation. 5. It's pretty ___ that they'll turn up now-it's nea rly ten o'clock. 6. The interchange of ideas aids an understandi ng of group ___ . 7. She says it's a good film and recommends it t o all her friends, though she hasn't ___ seen it. 8. Stop shouting and let's discuss this ___ reaso nably. Unit 5 Ways to Success 38

9. People now ___ that green issues are important to our future. 10. Kathy and Eric run this small hotel as an " ___ home", which should give you a good idea of the atmosphere of warmth and hospitality there. Answers: 1. was sinking 2. specialty 3. purely 4. discourage 5. unlikely 6. dynamics 7. actually 8. reasonably 9. have perceived 10. extended

Unit 5 Ways to Success 39 Part V Complete the following sentences with phrases or expressions from the passage. 1.She ___ politics while she was still a college student, and was elected to the lower parliament at the age of 40. 2. Alone in London, without friends, work, or money, Shelley ___ despair. 3. There was an attempt to ___ more men for the police force, but not many did.

Unit 5 Ways to Success 40 4. The idea sounds fine, but we still need to ___ it ___ in practice. 5. She started working on an engineering degree but ___ college after only a year. Answers: 1. took a deep interest in; 2. fell into; 3. sign up; 4. try (it) out;

5. dropped out of Unit 5 Ways to Success 41 Part VI Rewrite the following sentences, replacing the underlined words with their synonyms you have learned in this unit. 1. Rebecca was, without question, the most skilled technician on the team. 2. The company declares that their product makes you thin without dieting. 3. Your teacher can give you advice on choosing

a career and writing a job application. 4. The situation made it more difficult for management to encourage workers to work harder. Unit 5 Ways to Success 42 5. His books have sold in the thousands, but from a literary point of view they arent really very good. Answers: 1. capable 2. claims 3. guidance

4. motivate 5. standpoint Unit 5 Ways to Success 43 Part VII Translate the following sentences i nto English. 1 (professional) (from a standpoint) 2 (lose oneself in) 3 (u nless) 4 (unl

ess) 5 , .(since) Unit 5 Ways to Success 44 1 We have to put aside our emotions and take it from a professional standpoint. 2 The play was so wonderful that I soon lost myself in the excitement of it. 3 She hasnt got any hobbiesunless you call watching TV a hobby. 4 He said that he had got the information first-hand from the Mayor himself. 5 Since you cant answer the question,

perhaps wed better ask someone else. Unit 5 Ways to Success 45 Reading B: Warm Up Questions: 1. What kind of image does a superman produce in your mind? 2. Have you ever watched a horse-riding competition? 3. What are the biggest difficulties you have met with in your life and how have you overcome them?

Unit 5 Ways to Success 46 Background information about the text: 1. Christopher Reeve Actor, director and activist are just some of the words used to describe Christopher Reeve. From his first appearance at the Williamstown Theatre Festival at the age of 15, Reeve established a reputation as one of the country's leading actors. However, since he was paralyzed in an equestrian competition in 1995, Reeve has not only put a human face on spinal cord injury but he has motivated neuroscientists around the world to

conquer the most complex diseases of the brain and central nervous system. Unit 5 Ways to Success 47 2. Superman Superman is a motion picture about a newsp aper reporter with supernatural powers, base d on the comic strip created by Jerry Siegel a nd Joe Shuster. Released in 1978, this box-o ffice hit stars Christopher Reeve as Superma n and Gene Hackman as Lex Luthor, the crim inal mastermind. Superman is a native of the

planet Krypton, but he grows up on a farm in rural America. He moves to the big city and g ets a job as a reporter. At the newspaper, he is known as mild-mannered reporter Clark Unit 5 Ways to Success 48 Kent, but when he puts on his cape and fights crime, he becomes Superman. Superman rescues a kitten from a tree and California from falling into the ocean. He begins to fall in love with the reporter Lois Lane (played by Margot Kidder), and she begins to suspect that Superman and Clark

Kent are one and the same. The film earned a special Academy Award for its visual effects and inspired three sequels, including Superman II. Unit 5 Ways to Success 49 3. State of Virginia Virginia (state), in full Commonwealth of Vir ginia is a state in the eastern United States and one of the original 13 colonies. Named f or the Virgin Queen, Elizabeth I of England, Virginia was Englands first successful overs

eas colony and the site of the first permanen t English settlement in America. At one time it held territory from which several other sta tes were later formed. West Virginia was par t of Virginia until 1863. Virginias rich politic al heritage Unit 5 Ways to Success 50 helped shape the democratic principles on which the United States was founded. Virgi nia played an important role in the Americ an Revolution (1775-1783), and it entered the Union as the tenth of the original 13 st

ates on June 25, 1788. During the America n Civil War (1861-1865) the states capital, Richmond, was also capital of the Confeder acy. The state has long been nicknamed Ol d Dominion. Unit 5 Ways to Success 51 4. Boston University Boston University is a private, coeducational institution in Boston, Massachusetts. Founded in 1839 in Newbury, Vermont, the school was the first

Methodist (see Methodism) seminary in the United States. In 1847 the school moved to Concord, New Hampshire, and in 1867 it moved to Boston, where it was chartered as the Boston Theological Seminary. In 1869 the school was chartered by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and renamed Boston University. Unit 5 Ways to Success 52 Reading B: Para 1-4 Para 1 He was faster than a speeding bullet, more powerful than a locomotive, able to leap

tall buildings in a single bound. He was the worlds greatest superhero. When Christopher Reeve was picked to play this role in films in 1977, audiences across the country cheered with approval. Like Superman, Christopher was dashing, handsome, and strong. Like Superman, he seemed nearly invincible. He skied, sailed, flew planes, went scuba diving, rode horses, played tennisand did it all with skill and ease. No one could imagine Christopher Reeve any other way. Unit 5 Ways to Success 53

ease: the ability to do something without di fficulty Examples: The wall is so low that they jump over it with ease. Unit 5 Ways to Success 54 Para 2 All that changed on May 27, 1995. Christo pher was in Virginia with his wife, Dana Morosin i, and their young son, Will. He had entered a th ree-day horse riding competition there. His hors e, Eastern Express, appeared to be in fine shap e. The 42-year-old Christopher looked equally fi

t and relaxed. His horse... appeared to be in fine shape: Hi s horse ...looked fit and strong. relax: become less tense Examples: The music will help to relax you. Unit 5 Ways to Success 55 Para 3 The competition was going well for Christopher. He wasnt in the first place, but he wasnt in the last, either. On his third obstacle in a two-mile jumping event, however, the communication between

horse and rider broke down somehow. Without warning, Eastern Express stopped short, but Christopher kept going. He pitched forward over the horses head, landing on his own headnot moving, not even breathing. Unit 5 Ways to Success 56 obstacle: sth. in the way that stops progress o r makes it difficult Examples: A tree fallen across the road was an obstacle to our car.

communication: the act or action of communi cating Examples: Speech and writing are mans most important methods of communication. break down: fail; (of machinery) fail to work Examples: The peace talks have broken down. Unit 5 Ways to Success 57 Para 4 Christopher had broken his spinal cord near the base of his skull, resulting in paralysis from the neck down. He could not

speak. He could not even breathe on his own. At the time, doctors gave him only a 50-50 chance of surviving at all. Unit 5 Ways to Success 58 result in: have as a result; cause Examples: The accident resulted in the deaths of 2 passengers. on ones own: without help Examples: I cant carry it on my own; it is too heavy. at the time: at the moment when something

happened Examples: He called at my office yester day morning, but I could not see him, as I w as having Unit 5 Ways to Success 59 Reading B: Para 5-8 Para 5 Despair filled Christopher Reeves hea rt. He thought perhaps it would be best if he simply gave up. Dying seemed like the easi est and least painful thing to do. He thought it might be best for his family, too. Then he

saw his wife Dana standing next to him, say ing, Youre still you, and I love you. despair: (v.) lose hope of Examples: Dont despair: things will get better soon. Unit 5 Ways to Success 60 Para 6 From that moment on, Christopher th ought only about living. Gathering his cour age, he began to fight for his life. A few da ys later, Christopher underwent an operati on that helped restore some feeling to his

upper body. Still, doctors emphasized his li mitations. He would never walk again. He would never even breathe again without th e aid of a respirator. Unit 5 Ways to Success 61 undergo: experience (esp. suffering or difficulty) Examples: The explorers had to undergo much suffering. restore: bring back to a good or desirable state, especially of health Examples: He feels completely restored to

health after a period of intensive care. emphasize: place special attention on Examples: He emphasized the importance of being honest. aid: support; help Examples: The family lived on government aid for two years. Unit 5 Ways to Success 62 Para 7 Christopher set out to prove the doctors wrong. First of all, he wanted to breathe on his own. Five months after the

accident, he asked to be taken off the respirator. He managed just 10 feeble breaths before being reconnected to the breathing tube. Refusing to be discouraged, Christopher took a few more breaths the next day. By the fourth day, he was able to breathe seven minutes without assistance. After three months, he could sustain himself for 90 minutes at a time. By the end of 1995, he was able to go home. Unit 5 Ways to Success 63 set out: begin a course of action

Examples: He set out to break the wor ld record. sustain: (enable to) keep up, maintain Examples: They had nothing to sustai n them all day except two cups of coffee. at a time: one (two etc.) on each occasion; separately Examples: He took the stairs two at a time. Unit 5 Ways to Success 64 Para 8 Soon after that, Christopher felt

ready to face the world again. He had a message to spread. He wanted to tell people that no matter what challenges they faced, they shouldnt give up. Christopher began to make public appearances. He gave a motivational speech in Toronto. He spoke at a Boston University graduation. Wherever Christopher appeared, his speeches met with standing ovationsand many teary faces. Unit 5 Ways to Success 65

Reading B: Para 9-end Para 9 Christopher also went back to work. C learly he couldnt play the roles hed played in the past. Instead he turned to directing. His first film, In the Gloaming, proved he ha d not lost his creative spark. turn to: shift to Examples: After he left the university, he became a teacher, but later he turned to journalism. Unit 5 Ways to Success 66

Para 10: Despite his brave attitude, Christopher has had his share of down times. In the year following his accident, he had problems with blood clots. Later, he developed pneumonia. One day while doing physical therapy, he fell to the floor and broke his arm. Unit 5 Ways to Success 67 Para 11: Every day he struggled with the reality of his condition. In the morning, I

need 20 minutes to cry, he told a reporter. After nighttime dreams of running and playing with his son, he needed the 20 minutes to wake up and make that shift... Unit 5 Ways to Success 68 Para 12: But after the tears, Christopher always whispered, And now, forward! With those words, Christopher Reeve proved that although he had lost control of his body, he still had his courage, his

spirit, and his inner strength. In that sense, he still wasand always would beSuperman! Unit 5 Ways to Success 69 Exercises: Content Awareness Part 11 Answer the following questions with the information from the passag e. 1. How did Christopher Reeve fall off the horse? The horse stopped suddenly, but Christopher

kept going. This caused him to be thrown forward over the horses head . 2. What did Christopher Reeve manage t o do after the operation? He managed to breathe on his own. Unit 5 Ways to Success 70 3. How long did Christopher Reeve stay in the hospital? He stayed in the hospital for about seven months. 4. Why did Christopher Reeve begin to

make public speeches after he left the hospital? He made speeches to advise people not to give up whenever they face challenges. 5. What can we learn from Christopher? Unit 5 Ways to Success 71 Part 12 Choose the best answer to each question based on the information you obtain from the passage. 1. From the first paragraph we can learn that Christopher was ________. A) a superman

B) a film actor C) a diver D) a rider Unit 5 Ways to Success 72 2. Which of the following is true of Christopher? A) He won the competition and felt excited. B) He stayed with his wife and son all the time. C) He finally jumped over the third obstacle. D) He fell off the horse and was injured. 3. Shortly after Christopher was operated on, _______.

A) he recovered quickly and went home B) he still had some difficulty in breathing C) he fell down and broke his arm D) his chances of surviving were still slim Unit 5 Ways to Success 73 4. What did Christopher do after he returned to work? A) He taught at Boston University. B) He played the roles as he did in the past. C) He began to make public speeches.

D) He set about directing films. Unit 5 Ways to Success 74 5. What can be inferred from the passage? A) It was his wife who gave him courage to go on living. B) He picked up his courage and underwent another operation. C) Five months after the accident he could breathe on his own. D) His horse, Eastern Express, helped him a lot in the competition.

Unit 5 Ways to Success 75 Answers: 1.B, 2.D, 3.B, 4.D, 5.A Unit 5 Ways to Success 76 Exercises: Language Focus Part 13 Fill in blanks with words given below. Ch

ange the form where necessary. sustain obstacle emphasize undergo restore bound appearance shift invincible approval 1. With one __ the dog was over the fence. 2. We don't have sufficient resources to __ our campai gn for long. 3. She realized that being unable to speak a foreign la nguage was a major __ to her career. 4. The actor said that he felt quite __ after the holiday, and was ready to work again. Unit 5 Ways to Success

77 5. I'm only 16, and I'm afraid I can't sign these papers without my parent's __ . 6. The __ in the balance of power in the region has far-reaching consequences. 7. I'd like to __ the point that we are ready to meet with the management at any time. 8. You won't have to __ a medical examination, or any probing questions about your health or occupation. 9. When you're young you think you are __ , you feel you can achieve anything. 10. She was making a public __ sighing

copies of her latest novel. Unit 5 Ways to Success 78 Answers: 1. bound 2. sustain 3. obstacle 4. restored 5. approval 6. shift 7. emphasize 8. undergo 9. invincible 10. appearance

Unit 5 Ways to Success 79 Part 14 Complete the following sentences with phrases or expressions chosen from the passage. Change the form where necessary. 1. Last Sunday, we got up quite early and __ to paint the whole house , but finished only the front part. 2. Don't try to do everything at once -- it would be better to take it a bit __ . 3. She's been working too hard and she's __ pretty bad __ now.

Unit 5 Ways to Success 80 4. The truck __ when the child ran into the street from the sidewalk. 5. After he left the university be became a teacher, but later __ advertising. Answers: 1. set out 2. at a time 3. in ... shape 4. stopped short 5. turned to Unit 5 Ways to Success

81 Part 15 Translate the following sentences into English. 1 brake (pitch forward) 2. (break t hrough; obstacle) 3. (soon afte r) 4. (no matter) 5. (break down)

Unit 5 Ways to Success 82 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. All the passengers pitched forward because the bus driver braked sharply. this agreement will break through the obstacles to free trade. The taxi arrived soon after I rang for it.

My parents always waited up for me no matter what time I got home. Talks between the two countries completely broke down, because neither of them wanted to give in. Unit 5 Ways to Success 83 Culture Salon Unit 5 Ways to Success 84

Quotes from Famous People Always bear in mind that your own resolution to success is more important than any other one thing. Abraham Lincoln Many of life's failures are people who did not realize how close they were to success when they gave up. Thomas Edison Unit 5 Ways to Success 85

If A is success in life, then A equals x plus y plus z. Work is x; y is play; and z is keeping your mouth shut. Albert Einstein Success is a lousy teacher. It seduces smart people into thinking they can't lose. Bill Gates Man is not made for defeat. A man can be destroyed but not defeated. Ernest Hemingway Unit 5 Ways to Success 86 Each success only buys an admission ticket to

a more difficult problem. Henry Kissinger Notes: 1. Henry Alfred Kissinger was the 56th Se cretary of State of the United States from 1 973 to 1977. Unit 5 Ways to Success 87 Success usually comes to those who are too busy to be looking for it. Henry Thoreau

Notes: 2. Henry Thoreau, writer and thinker, lived in the 19th century from 1817-1862. Although he was regarded as unimportant during his lifetime, his writings have been a large influence on the 20th century. Unit 5 Ways to Success 88 I don't know the key to success, but the key to failure is to try to please everyone. Bill Cosby Notes:

3. Bill Cosby: actor/comedian, born July 12, 1937, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is one of the most influential performers of the second half of the 20th century. Unit 5 Ways to Success 89 General Writing: Relative and Appositive Clauses Relative clauses are dependent clauses, so named because they begin with a relative p ronoun: who, which, or that. Relative clause s are used to modify nouns denoting people

or things. Unit 5 Ways to Success 90 Examples: The women who live in the same house on Gr een Street are cousins. Jack, who teaches mechanical drawing, also h as his law degree. The party, which you threw for my birthday, w as really wild. The Alexander Bridge, which was built in 1927 , spans the Feather River.

The building that caught on fire was condemn ed a month ago. I'd like to meet the boy that won the district s peech contest. Unit 5 Ways to Success 91 Part 17 Put in the best relative pronouns who, which, or that to complete each of the following complex sentences. Also, underline the relative clause. Example: The groceries that you just bought should last for weeks.

Unit 5 Ways to Success 92 1. The sweater __ I bought at Macy's shrank tw o sizes when I washed it. 2. The men __ own the Main Street realty office buy a lot of land for themselves. 3. The Mecha Christmas party, __ has become an annual event, is always well attended. 4. The problem __ we will study today is on pa ge eight. 5. A man __ was wearing a yellow shirt asked me for a cigarette.

Unit 5 Ways to Success 93 Answers: 1. The sweater that/which I bought at Mac y's shrank two sizes when I washed it. 2. The men who own the Main Street realt y office buy a lot of land for themselves. 3. The Mecha Christmas party, which has become an annual event, is always well at tended. 4. The problem which we will study today i s on page eight.

5. A man who/that was wearing a yellow s hirt asked me for a cigarette. 6. They sent a chair that was damaged to the repair department. Unit 5 Ways to Success 94 Part 18 Put in an relative clause beginning with who, which, or that to complete each of the following complex sentences. Example: The crime wave that has been sweeping the city is finally on the decline.

Unit 5 Ways to Success 95 1. The young boy __ is my nephew. 2. The new house __ was burglarized last month. 3. The Tule River, __, is famous for its rapids. 4. I'd like to see those rare white whales __ . 5. The tall woman __ is a great runner. Unit 5 Ways to Success

96 Answers : 1. who is standing at the door 2. that is owned by the old lady 3. which goes through the city 4. that are on exhibition now 5. who lives next door Unit 5 Ways to Success 97 Part 19 Combine each set of sentences into one sentence. Make sure to use

who, which, and that correctly. Examples: a. The garden is beginning to sprout. b. I planted it last week. Combination: The garden that I planted last week is beginning to sprout. Unit 5 Ways to Success 98 1. a. Hockey is a fast-moving game. b. It often becomes violent. 2. a. Down coats are very warm.

b. They are also very expensive. 3. a. My brother missed the bus. b. He took too much time packing. 4. a. Henry caught a trout. b. It was the largest fish ever recorded in Idaho. 5. a. We laughed and looked through the yearbook. b. It contained pictures of our school days together. Unit 5 Ways to Success 99 Key: 1. Hockey, which is a fast-moving game,

often becomes violent. 2. Down coats, which are very warm, are also very expensive. 3. My brother, who took too much time packing, missed the bus. 4. Henry caught a trout that was the largest fish ever recorded in Idaho. 5. We laughed and looked through the yearbook that contained pictures of our school days together. Unit 5 Ways to Success 100 Appositive clauses, introduced by that,

are used in apposition with such words as fact, plan, suggestion, giving more information. Example: The fact that he had not told the truth soon became apparent. Unit 5 Ways to Success 101 Part20 Put in an appositive clause beginning with that to complete each of the following complex sentences. Examples:

The suggestion that we all ride in the van together makes sense to me. 1. The suggestion __ if good for us. 2. We are rethinking the plan __ . 3. I dont like the inference __ . 4. The fact __ doesnt necessarily mean you wont be able to enter the university. 5. We have made the decision __ . Unit 5 Ways to Success 102 Answers: 1 that we read more books 2 that we go to England next year

3 that English is easy to learn 4 that you havent got these qualifications 5 that we buy the new car at this price Unit 5 Ways to Success 103

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