Marine Charts and Navigation Oceanography 2017 Earth Coordinate System 1. 2. 3. 4. Latitude Parallels of arc 0-90 N-S from the equator to poles
1 = 60 (1=60 sec) small circles 1. 2. 3. 4. Longitude Meridians of angle 0 (prime meridian) -180 EW pole to pole Prime meridian is measured at Greenwich England
great circles Marine Charts Water depths Configuration of the shoreline in coastal waters Navigational lights, buoys, landmarks Chart title block Nature of the bottom (hrd, rky, g, sh, s, co)
North is the top, latitude scale on side, and longitude on top and bottom Many charts cover less than a 1 of lat or long, so be careful when fixing a position Units of Distance Statute vs. nautical miles 1 nautical mile = 1 of latitude 1 nautical mile = 1.15 statute miles
1 of latitude = 60 = 60 nautical miles 1 = 60 nautical miles = 69 statute miles Use a drafting compass or dividers and spread points to apply to chart bar scale to determine distance Units of Speed Knot = 1 nautical mile/hour 1 knot x 1.85 = km/ hr Plotting a Course
Magnetic vs. true (geographic) North Use the Compass rose on the chart The compass is graduated from 0-360 and broken into 32 points on the compass Cardinal points (0, 90, 180, 270 degrees) Intercardinal points (northeast, southeast, southwest, northwest) Cardinal-intercardinal points (ie. east northeast = 67.5 and south southeast = 157.5) Cont Course Intended direction of travel
Expressed in degrees However, influenced by winds, currents, and pilot error Heading The direction in which the ship is actually traveling regardless of prescribed course Bearing Direction from one point to another Expressed as an angle from North Traditional expressed as relative parts of the vessel Time and Earths Rotation Earth
rotates on its axis once in 24hrs = day Each rotation is 360 = 24hrs Longitude 0 (prime meridian at Greenwich England) when sun is directly overhead is 12:00 noon Therefore at 180 the time is 12:00am (midnight) Therefore, every 15 of longitude E or W of Greenwich = 1 hour of time (Zulu or Z. time) 360/24 = 15 D.R. Navigation 1. 2. 3. 4.
Also known as Dead Reckoning or Ded Reckoning Method of navigating using the following from a KNOWN position: Time Speed Distance Direction Note: Does not account for error or currents Formulas Distance Speed Time = Speed x Time D
= Distance / Time = Distance / Speed S Use 60 D = S * T (for minutes) T
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