Mapping It Out - California State University, Northridge

Mapping It Out - California State University, Northridge

Mapping It Out using geography to identify and analyze public health disparities Steve Graves Four Main Points Geography is a discipline, not a subject. GIS is a tool that offers you the means to answer questions that you otherwise could

not answer. Geographers have useful statistical techniques. Cartography is a language that communicates your findings effectively. Geography Geography is a discipline Our subject is anything that can be mapped.

Somewhat unique epistemology We ask where? when we want to answer why? Somewhat unique methodological tool box

Spatial stats, spatial analysis Geographic information systems, unique analysis Complex, multivariate analysis is common Tests for spatial autocorrelation - overlooked Powerful communicative media the map. Health and Medical Geography

Topics in Geography 486

Human Ecology of Disease Landscape Epidemiology Development and Human Health Biometeorology Pollution Disease Diffusion Health Care Delivery Systems

Health Care Resource Distribution Health Service Planning John Snows Cholera Map Medical Geography has a long history.

http://en.wik ipedia.org/ wiki/John_S now_(physi cian) John Snows Cholera Map Mapped outbreak

and traced disease to a water pump. Bolstered germ theory X

Animated File of Cholera Outbreak Maps of outbreaks can show the spread of infection through

time and space. Realtime Outbreak Map Modern example, relatively easy to make. http://healthmap.org/en H1N1 Real Time Mapping Relatively simple to create maps can help

those responsible for health care delivery to respond to crises. http://flutracker.rhizalabs.com/ See next slide Flu Tracker Map Some other uses

Maps can show disparity in health care delivery Help patients find quality health care Help authorities assess risk See the following slides HIV mapping in San Francisco Rather than simply

mapping cases, this map demonstrates variation in viral load of patients. It indicates disparity in treatment, since average viral load is a measure of how sick the patients are.

Online Hospital Ranking Map http://www.netdoc.com/hospital-rankings/ Geography 107 Project completed by CSUN freshmen Asthma Map- Missouri

GIS capabilities A GIS can layer many types of spatial data Points, polygons, lines The GIS has analysis functions that allow researchers to analyze data at different spatial scales and obtained in different formats Many statistical transformations, some of which are unique to spatial datalike spatial

autocorrelation. Some simple techniques, like layering, helps researchers and students make predictive models of disease or health threats. Predictive Modeling of Loa loa African Eye worm.

The environmental conditions associated with diagnosed cases of Loa Loa are used to identify locations with similar environmental conditions for the

disease exist. Lead Poisoning Risk Map Philadelphia This analysis allows health officials to efficiently allocate

resources for mitigation, prevention and education. Map Layering Example The location where malarial mosquitoes can be predicted by collecting and layering maps showing known causal variables.

Low lying, stagnant water bodies Vegetation types and shade cover Soil types Elevation Population density, etc. Multilayer Mapping: Mosquito Vectored Disease Topography and Water

Digital Elevation Models, Soil and Vegetation + +

Mosquito Habitat Map Could be used to disburse much needed medicine or mosquito nets. Maps show (in blue) locations where risk is

greatest. Maps: Great Communicators! Graphic representations of data frequently more powerful than numeric or textual representations. Maps seem authoritative to policy makers and stake holders. See following images..

My map Public Opinion on Public Health Care Cartogram of Population Red State Blue State Cartogram

Note how this map represents election results much differently? Is America polarized or are we centrists? And finally Maps can also be entertaining, especially

when they are interactive (not in this presentation), even while they are informative. The following map shows access to McDonalds restaurants nationwide. Fast food nation indeed Access to McDonalds

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