MAN AND ENERGY A case for Sustainable Living through ...

MAN AND ENERGY A case for Sustainable Living through ...

MAN AND ENERGY A case for Sustainable Living through Renewable and Green Energy Ali Keyhani Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering The Ohio State University Columbus, OH-43210 [email protected] 01/31/20 [email protected] 1 ABSTRACT Energy technologies have a central role in social and economic developments at all scales. Energy is closely linked environmental pollution, degradation to economic development and quality of living. We are dependent on nonrenewable fossil fuels that have been and will continue to be major cause of pollution and climatic change. Petroleum supplies are dwindling. Thus finding sustainable alternatives is an urgent concern. 01/31/20

[email protected] 2 .ABSTRACT Challenges To develop technology for integration, control of renewable energy sources, control of energy consumption and load management. To empower energy user for a sustainable living. Developing Distributed Generation system where energy user is also an energy producer. 01/31/20 [email protected] 3 ABSTRACT In this talk, an overview of humankind energy use is presented. Man and Energy --- the past.

Man and Energy--- the last hundred years. Man and Energy---the future Then the talk, focuses on some of the challenges and efforts needed to harness renewable energy sources for a sustainable human society. 01/31/20 [email protected] 4 MAN HISTORY Early human forays into the Middle East from Africa around 100,000 to 150,000 years ago. These early settlers were replaced by Neanderthals in the region about 80,000 years ago. Possible triggers for migration : increase in population, a change in diet, the acquisition of language and climatic change. Around 40,000 years ago, grip of Ice Age loosened, temperature became warmer, humans moved into Central Asia and multiplied quickly. 01/31/20 [email protected]

5 MAN HISTORY 35,000 years ago small groups of people left Central Asia for Europe. Cold temperatures kept them there. They became paler and shorter than their African ancestors. 15000 years ago, one small clan of arctic dwellers followed the reindeer herd over the Bering Strait land bridge to North America. 01/31/20 [email protected] 6 MAN HISTORY Some time in the past, random mutations, which can happen naturally and be harmless, marked a new begging. Climate changes may have coaxed humans out of Africa and encouraged Neanderthals already

living there to spread outward into other parts of Asia and southeastern Europe. But a climatic reversal also could have turned the tables. 01/31/20 [email protected] 7 MAN HISTORY Europe and Northern Asia were experiencing a cool era at that time, and even hearty Neanderthals probably would have found the warmer climates to the south enticing. They pushed back probably from the Caucasus region to the north, and drove the humans then living there into retreat Bar-Yosef suggested. Only a second advance by humans thousands of years laterone that was more permanently successful ultimately settled the question of which species would prevail. 01/31/20 [email protected]

8 CLIMATE FACTOR A major mystery in the story of human evolution is how climate affected the environment where creatures that regularly walked uprightthe hominidsfirst emerged. One widely accepted theory holds that after the ape and hominid lineages split, the earliest human ancestors were forced into the expanding tropical grasslands of the African savanna after the continent's thick forests dwindled as a result of climate change. 01/31/20 [email protected] 9 Sustainable Energy Technology Primary Energy: All we use comes from the sun. Solar radiation Key to Sustainability: Utilize primary energy

resource at the same rate at which it is naturally replenished on earth and without externalities. Source : BMW Group,2000 01/31/20 [email protected] 10 EARLY HISTORY AND USE OF ENERGY Mesopotamia An area geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to Iraq , Khuzestan region of southwestern Iran. 8000 B.C people of the area used wood and wood charcoal and oil. Include Sumer and the Akkadian, Babylonian, Assyrian Empires. Known as Cradle of civilization 01/31/20 [email protected]

11 EARLY HISTORY AND USE OF ENERGY IRON AGE The Neo-Assyrian Empire was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 934 BC and ended in 609 BC. About half a century later, the Babylonians and Assyrians both became provinces of the Persian Empire which gave way to the Achaemenid Empire. 01/31/20 Seal of Cyrus, the Great.(550 B.C.) [email protected] 12 EARLY HISTORY AND USE OF ENERGY EGYPT 5000 B.C, Egyptians used wood and wood charcoal for cooking and heat.

Inscriber Egypt. (3000BC.) 01/31/20 [email protected] 13 EARLY HISTORY AND USE OF ENERGY GREECE 750 B.C TO 146 B.C, considered to the seminal culture which provided the foundation for western civilization. The Parthenon is the most memorable symbol of the culture and sophistication of the ancient Greeks. Greek culture had a power influence on Roman Empire. 01/31/20 [email protected] 14 EARLY HISTORY AND USE OF ENERGY INDIA The Indus Valley Civilization (30001500 B.C) flourished in the

Indus river valleys primarily in Sindh province of Pakistan, extending westward into Balochistan province, and in north western and western India. According to archaeologists, wheel was probably invented in around 8,000 B.C. in India. Taj mahal 01/31/20 Chariots belonging to the Aryans of ancient India [email protected] 15 EARLY HISTORY AND USE OF ENERGY CHINA China is one of the world's oldest continuous civilizations (extends 5000 years). Deep Drilling of Gas: Technique developed in 100 B.C. The devices that were used were remarkably large and well crafted for time. The Chineses building process was

dramatically sped up because of this useful invention. The wheelbarrow emerged in first century BC. 01/31/20 [email protected] 16 CHRONOLOGY OF OIL DISCOVERY AND USAGE 450 B.C : Herodotus described oil pits near Babylon. 325 B.C : Alexander the great used flaming torches of petroleum products to scare his enemies. 1264 : Marco Polo recorded visiting the Persian city of Baku, on the shores of the Caspian Sea in modern Azerbaijan, he saw oil being collected from seeps for use in medicine and lighting. 1814 : One of the first wells that produced oil which was marketed was drilled near Marietta, Ohio 01/31/20 [email protected] 17

CHRONOLOGY OF OIL DISCOVERY AND USAGE 1895 : Invention of combustion engine. 1896 : Henry Ford's first motorcar. 1908 - Oil discovered in Persia, Anglo Persian Oil company formed (Later became British Petroleum, BP). 1938 - Oil discovered in Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. 1939-1945 - World War II - control of oil supply from Baku and Middle East played a huge role in the events of the war and the ultimate victory of the allies. Cutting off the oil supply considerably weakened Japan in the latter part of the war. 01/31/20 [email protected] 18 CHRONOLOGY OF OIL DISCOVERY AND USAGE 1951 : Anglo Iranian Oil Company nationalized. 1954 : Anglo-Persian Oil Company renamed British Petroleum. 1979-1981 : Oil prices rise from $13.00 to $34.00. 1986 : Chernobyl - Nuclear power plant accident. 2003 : (Aug 14) - Major electrical failure causes blackout in New York State and Ontario. 01/31/20

[email protected] 19 CHRONOLOGY OF OIL DISCOVERY AND USAGE 2004 (July) - US oil imports at a record 11.3MMBO per day. 2004 - (Nov) George Bush re-elected President in USA. 2004 (Oct 25) - Oil at a record price of $55.67 US per barrel on concerns over high demand and possible supply disruptions in the Middle East and damage on the Gulf Coast from Hurricane Ivan . 2008 (Jan 2) - WTI oil price briefly touches US$100 per barrel for the first time driven by supply concerns and the weak US dollar. 01/31/20 [email protected] 20 Is an Oil economy Sustainable? In the long run, an economy that utilizes petroleum as a primary energy source is not sustainable, because the amount of oil in the Earths crust is finite.

The history of energy use is largely one of substitution. In the 19th century, the worlds primary energy source was wood. Around 1890, wood was replaced by coal. Coal remained the worlds largest source of energy until the 1960s when it was replaced by oil. No one can predict the future, but the world contains enough petroleum resources to last at least until the year 2100. 01/31/20 [email protected] 21 The above graph shows the Hubbert predictions in 1956 which shows the estimates of the oil production in the future which is compared with the actual production. 01/31/20 [email protected] 22 The world average oil production per capita from 1920 to 1999. The curve represents the ratio of world oil production (O) and world population (Pop): i.e. = O/(Pop) in barrels per

capita per year (i.e. b/c/year). Note well that grew exponentially from 1920 to 1973. Next, growth was negligible from 1973 to the all-time peak in 1979. Finally, from its peak in 1979 to 1999, decreased at an average rate of 1.20% per year. (i.e. from 5.50 b/c in 1979 to 4.32 b/c in 1999) 01/31/20 [email protected] 23 World average energy production per capita () grew significantly from 1920 to its all-time peak in 1979. Then from its peak in 1979 to 1999, declined at an average rate of 0.33 %/year. 01/31/20 [email protected] 24 Introduction to Current Energy Use World-Wide Total Energy Sources 86.5% combustion

21.1% Natural Gas 32.6% oil 22.2% coal 10.6% traditional biomass 5.7% nuclear 5.5% hydro-electric 2.3% renewables (other than traditional biomass) 01/31/20 Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004) [email protected] 25 Introduction to current energy use

Trends in World Total Energy Use (last 30 years) BP website 01/31/20 [email protected] 26 Introduction to current Energy Use Regional Distribution of Total Energy Use Regional Consumption Pattern 2006 Percentage 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 North

America S. & Cent. America Europe & Eurasia Middle East Africa Asia Pacific Oil remains the leading energy source in all regions except Asia Pacific and Europe and Eurasia. Coal dominates in the Asia Pacific Region, while Natural Gas is the leading fuel in Europe and Eurasia. The Asia Pacific region accounted for two-thirds global energy consumption last year. 01/31/20 [email protected] 27

Introduction to current Energy Use World Energy Use for Electricity Generation 64% combustion 39% coal 15% gas 10% oil 16% nuclear 19% hydro-electric World Nuclear Association, 2008 01/31/20 [email protected] 28 Introduction to current Energy Use World Energy Resource Trends Year 2000 405*1015 BTU

Year 2020 610*10 15 BTU 50% increase Source : EIA, U.S, DOE, 2007 01/31/20 [email protected] 29 Energy Sustainability Discussion Primary Energy : All We Use Comes from the Sun. Energy sustainability requires use of resources at the same rate at which they are naturally replenished on earth without externalities. Source : BMW Group, 2000 01/31/20 [email protected] 30 Energy Sustainability Discussion

Earth at night - 2007 01/31/20 [email protected] 31 Energy Sustainability Discussion Earth at night 2030 01/31/20 [email protected] 32 Electricity Consumption 01/31/20 [email protected] 33 Introduction to Current Energy Use

World-Wide Total Energy Sources 86.5% combustion 21.1% Natural Gas 32.6% oil 22.2% coal 10.6% traditional biomass 5.7% nuclear 5.5% hydro-electric 2.3% renewables (other than traditional biomass) Boyle, Renewable Energy, Oxford University Press (2004) Energy Sustainability Discussion 2.5 A small number, BUT, at this IEA forecast average annual growth rate (2.5%) world electricity

demand will double by 2030 75 IEA forecasts world carbon dioxide emissions due to power generation to increase over 75% from 2002 to 2030 (from 9417 metric tons to 16771 metric tons) 1.5 billion 2006 world population equals 6.7 billion. The UN forecasts population will grow to 8.2 Billion by 2030. Thats another 1.5 billion people who will need electricityequivalent to adding 5 new USAs to the globe. Energy Sustainability Discussion Current overall effectiveness of energy consumption is DEPRESSING We Would be better off burning a lump of coal at home to produce light? Highly poor end-use efficiency - Transport emissions/efficiency challenges. - End-use emissions. Global Climate Solar irradiation enters atmosphere primarily as UV radiation Earth radiation to space is primarily Infra-red radiation Composition of atmosphere affects how much energy is absorbed, reflected, transmitted through,. Similar to a car window IPCC, 2006 ;

01/31/20 [email protected] 37 Global Climate Many factors influence climate One cannot prove that human activity is causing climate change, but, preponderance of evidence is certain IPCC, 2006 ; 01/31/20 [email protected] 38 Co2 Emission Around the World 01/31/20 [email protected] 39

Production of CO2 Since 1700 01/31/20 [email protected] 40 Global Climate Carbon dioxide concentration, temperature, sea level continue to rise long after emissions are reduced. IPCC, 2006 ; 01/31/20 [email protected] 41 Global Climate Departures in temperatures ( degree celsius ) from 1961-1990 average IPCC, 2006 ;

01/31/20 [email protected] 42 Energy Sustainability Discussion Greenhouse Gas emissions in electricity sector H combined cycle(60%) LMS 100(46%) Heavy duty simple cycle (37%) Coal New Coal - IGCC with CCS Natural Gas New Coal - SCPC Existing Coal: Usavg. (30%) World Average 0 500 1000

1500 2000 2500 carbondioxide emission rate (lbs/MWh) Source : EIA, U.S., DOE, 2007 01/31/20 [email protected] 43 Energy Sustainability Discussion We SHOULD move towards clean energy Technologies Green Tech and clean energy have become Wall Street darlings GOOD. Need much more than hype. Global Clean Energy Projected Growth 2007-2017 $300.00 $250.00

$200.00 2007 $150.00 2017 $100.00 $50.00 $0.00 Biofuels Wind Power Solar Power Fuel Cells Total Global Installation/Production Growth : Solar, Wind, Biofuels 2003 2007

2017(est.) Solar PV installations 620MW 2821MW 22760MW Wind Power Installed 8000MW 20060MW 75781MW Biofuels Produced 7 Billion Gallons

15.6 Billion Gallons 45.9 Billion Gallons Source : Clean Energy, Inc. 01/31/20 [email protected] 44 Energy Sustainability Discussion Proven Energy Resources around the world Petroleum Natural Gas Coal Region 2002 preserved Resources (10^9 bbls)

R/P (years) 2002 proved Reserves (10^12 SCF) R/P years 2002 preserved Reserves (10^9 tonnes) R/P (years) North America 49.9 10.3 252.4 9.4 257.8

240 S. & Cent.America 98.6 42 250.2 68.8 21.8 404 Europe & Eurasia 97.5 17 2155.8 58.9

355.4 306 Middle East 685.6 92 1979.7 >100 ???? >500 Africa 77.4 27.3 418.1

88.9 55.3 247 Asia Pacific 38.7 13.7 445.3 41.8 292.5 126 World 1047.7 40.6

5501.5 60.7 984.5 204 Reserves-to-production (R/P) : R/P ratios represent the length of time that those remaining reserves would last if production were to continue at the previous year's rate. It is calculated by dividing remaining reserves at the end of the year by the production in that year. 01/31/20 BP website [email protected] 45 Energy Sustainability Proved reserves at end 2006 Thousand million barrels Oil Reserves

800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 Asia Pacific North America S & Cent. America Africa Europe & Asia Middle East Region 01/31/20 [email protected]

46 Energy Sustainability Discussion Caifornia Global Climate Initiatives Achieving goals will require remarkable and significant adoption of new technologies affecting all economic sectors. Electricity generation sector example 01/31/20 Source : Ferguson, CEERT, March2,2007 [email protected] 47 Energy Sustainability Discussion Oil Discovery and Production Trends Source : Campbell, Hubbert Peak, 2005 01/31/20 [email protected] 48

Energy Sustainability Historical and projected Oil production vs. Region 01/31/20 Source : Campbell, Hubbert Peak, 2005 [email protected] 49 Introduction to Current Energy Use Petroleum Production Projected Peak oil (2016-2028) Source : Oil and Gas Journal, 2004 01/31/20 [email protected] 50 Introduction to Current Energy Use World Oil Demand Growth (change from previous year)

Source : EIA, U.S., DOE, 2008 Sustainable Energy Technology Dish Stirling Engine Uses Carnot Cycle High heat capacity working fluid (usually Hydrogen) The age of petroleum is coming to an end, and the future is dangerously insecure. Oil demand will shortly exceed the production capacity of even the largest suppliers. The world economy is moving towards an uneasy transition. The open question is when the peak oil usage occur. Can the world renewable and green sources of energy be able to continue the industry in the same way as it is at present. Global warming is an engineering problem, not a moral crusade. Until we solve the problem, it's hypocrisy to pretend we can stop. 01/31/20 [email protected]

53 Remarks: Accepted age for the Earth and the rest of the solar system is about 4.55 billion years. It took billion of years to produce world oil, gas and coal reserve. Recorded history of Homo Sapiens is about 5000 years old. For 5000 years, man used wood , wood charcoal , wind and water power . Since the industrial revolution, man has been using coal. Man has been using oil for one hundred years. How long would it last? 01/31/20 [email protected] 54 Remarks: Man has been present on earth : 5000/4000000=0.1% Man has been using energy : 5000/100000=5% Man has been using oil : 100/5000=2%

Results: Man has populated the earth and exhausted it resources. 01/31/20 [email protected] 55 CONCLUSION The parallel issue that is also in a concern is the Global warming. For a sustainable life and preventing Global warming, man must minimizing the dependence on oil. 01/31/20 Renewable and Green Energy [email protected] 56 INTRODUCTION

What is the Concept of Green Energy ? Power generation using environmental-friendly energy sources. 1. Hydrogen Based Resources Fuel cells 2. Renewable Energy Sources Photovoltaic cells Wind power 3. Storage Devices Ultra capacitors Batteries

Flywheels 01/31/20 [email protected] 57 Distributed Generation System Technologies 01/31/20 [email protected] 58 INTRODUCTION What are the Benefits of Distributed Generation Systems ? Installation near to the local loads. Power losses of distribution network can be reduced by reducing the power flow in the

transmission lines. On-site standby power systems during grid outages Peak load shaving Modular structure makes system expansion easy. e.g. fuel cell-micro turbine or micro turbine-battery systems. Combined heat and power (CHP) applications. 01/31/20 [email protected] 59 Germany Solar Initiative

The "Feed-in Law" in Germany permits customers to receive preferential tariffs for solar generated electricity depending on the nature and size of the installation. Under the new tariff structure introduced in 2004, the base level of compensation for ground-mounted systems can be up to 45.7 euro cents/kWh. PV installations on buildings receive higher rates of up to 57.4 euro cents/kWh. 01/31/20 [email protected] 60 Germany Solar Initiative The Feed-in Law fixes tariffs for approved renewable energy projects for a 20-year period from the plant commissioning and will apply incremental price cuts. Tariffs were initially set at 48.1 cents per kilowatt hour for solar energy, 8.6 cents per kWh for wind, from 9.6 to 8.2 cents per kWh for biomass, 8.4 to 6.7 cents per kWh for geothermal and 7.2 to 6.3 cents per kWh for hydropower, waste and sewage gas. The Feed-in Law requires that the tariff paid for solar electricity be reduced by 5% per year, and by 6.5% per annum for groundmounted systems. 01/31/20

[email protected] 61 Germany Solar Initiative Some 20,000 solar electricity systems yielding an output of about 145 Megawatts (MW) were installed in 2003, almost twice the volume installed in the previous year. The total solar electricity capacity in Germany is now estimated at over 400 Megawatts. Germany saw slow growth in 2006, but still remains by far the largest PV market in the world. 01/31/20 [email protected] 62 Germany Solar Initiative 968 Megawatts of PV were installed in Germany in 2006. The German solar market generated total revenues of over 800 million euros in 2003.

The German PV industry generates over 10,000 jobs in production, distribution and installation. Over 90% of solar PV installations are in gridtied applications in Germany. The balance is off-grid (or stand alone) systems 01/31/20 [email protected] 63 Germany Solar Initiative PV Installations by Year in Germany (in Megawatts) 1990( 0.60 MW) 1991(1.00 MW) 1992(3.10MW) 1993 (3.5 MW) 1994 (4.0 MW) 1995 (5.9 MW) 1996 (10.6 MW) 1997 (14.5 MW) 1998 (12.6 MW) 1999 (16.5 MW) 2000 (44.0 MW) 2001 ( 80.0 MW) 2002 (83.0 MW) 2003 (145.0 MW) 01/31/20 [email protected] 64

Germany Solar Initiative The world's largest PV installation is in Germany, at Hemau in Bavaria. It consists of 32,740 solar modules with a combined peak power output of 4 Megawatts. Some German states have subsidy programs for PV installations that can be used in combination with the national Feed-in Law. 01/31/20 [email protected] 65 Germany Solar Initiative German Energy and Electricity Industry German domestic energy sources in 1998 were: Coal: 46%, Nuclear power: 31%, Natural Gas: 14%, Renewable Energy: 6% and Oil: 3%. In consumption terms, though, oil accounted for 44%, or 2.8 million barrels per day. Of the renewable energy segment, wind energy accounts for about 58%, Hydropower 30%, Biomass 12%, and solar and other source for the balance.

01/31/20 [email protected] 66 Selected Energy Statistics by Country (1998) Source: International Energy Agency Population GDP (US $) Electricity consumption kWhr per capita Brazil 165.87 576.41 1850.78 1.78

0.51 Canada 30.30 666.72 16348.68 15.75 0.72 China 1238.60 805.26 871.91 2.30 3.54

France 58.85 1349.20 7175.10 6.38 0.28 Germany 82.02 1883.53 6481.51 10.45 0.46 India

979.67 499.31 415.75 0.93 1.82 Japan 126.49 3303.58 8008.33 8.92 0.34 United Kingdom 59.24

1123.21 5800.11 9.28 0.49 269.09 7043.64 13388.11 20.10 0.77 United States 01/31/20 [email protected] CO2 per

capita CO2 per unit of GDP 67 Company Name Country Address Contact details Aleo Solar Germany Staugraben 4, D-26122 Oldenburg, Germany Tel: 49 441 219 88-0 Fax: 49 441 219 88-15 E Mail: [email protected] Alfasolar Vertriebsgesellschaf

t GmbH Germany Calenberger Str. 28, D-30169 Hannover, Germany Tel: 49 5 11 131 71 90 Fax: 49 5 11 131 71 92 E Mail: [email protected] Aplicaciones Tecnicas de las E nerga (ATERSA) Spain Embajadores 187, Madrid 28045, Spain Tel: 34 915 178 452 Fax: 34 914 747 467 E Mail: [email protected] AXITEC Vertrieb Deutschland Germany Heimsheimer Strae 62, 71263 Weil der Stadt (Hausen),

Germany Tel: 49 7033 30 42 0 Fax: 49 7033 30 42 222 E Mail: [email protected] BIOHAUS PV Handels GmbH Germany Otto-Stadler-Str. 23, D-33100 Paderborn, Germany Tel: 49 5251 500 500 Fax: 49 5251 500 5010 E Mail: Canadian Solar Inc. Canada 4056 Jefton Crescent, Mississauga, Ontario L5L 1Z3, Canada Tel: 1 905 828 2437 Fax: 1 905 828 9062 E Mail:

Centennial Solar Inc Canada 8114-B Trans Canada St-Laurent, Qubec H4S 1M5 Canada Tel: 1 (514) 461-9822 Fax: 1 (514) 461-9824 E Mail: [email protected] Crown Renewable Energy United States 805 Aerovista Place, Suite 202 San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 Tel: 1 805-269-1260 Fax: 1 805-269-1270 E Mail: [email protected] 01/31/20 [email protected]

68 DaSol Solar Energy Science & Technology Co., Ltd China Fantan industrial park, Anji, Zhejiang, China, 313300 Tel: 0086-572-5119058 Fax: 0086-572-5119077 E Mail: [email protected] Day4 Energy Canada #101 5898 Trapp Avenue Burnaby, BC V3N 5G4, Canada Tel: 1 604 759 3294 Fax: 1 604 759 3295 E Mail: [email protected] Energy Solutions S.A.

Bulgaria 1 Vladaisko vastanie Str. 2304, Pernik, Bulgaria Tel: 30 2106861461 Fax: 30 2106861399 E Mail: [email protected] ET Solar China Shan Xi Road Nanjing Jiangsu 210009 China Tel: 86 25 86898098 Fax: 86 25 86898097 E Mail: [email protected] Gllivare PhotoVoltaic AB (G PV) Sweden Fretagscentrum Hus 60, Box 840, 98228 Gllivare, Sweden

Tel: 46 970 15830 Fax: 46 970 15898 E Mail: Gebaude-Solarsysteme Gmb H (GSS) Germany Windmuehlenstrasse 2, 04626 Loebishau, Germany Tel: 49 36602 509676 Fax: 49 9573 9224 24 E Mail: Gloria Solar Co., Ltd. Taiwan No. 498, Section 2, Bentian Road, An-Nan Dist., Tainan 70955, Taiwan, R.O.C Tel: 886 6 384 0689 ext. 3511 Fax: 886 6 384 0733 E Mail: [email protected]

Hellas Solar Greece 3 P. Ioakim 5th fl. Athens 10673 Greece Tel: +30 210 7295506 Fax: +30 210 7257892 E mail: [email protected] Part of SolarWorld Group 01/31/20 [email protected] 69 Heliodinmica Brazil Rodovia Raposo Tavares km 41, Vargem Grande Paulista - CEP 06730-970, Caixa Postal 111, So Paulo, Brasil

Tel: 11 4158-3511 Fax: 11 4158-3755 E mail: [email protected] Ilyich Iron & Steel Works Ukraine Mariupol, Levchenko str. 1, Ukraine, Donetsk Region 87504 Tel: 38 - (0629) - 39-33-78 Fax: 38 - (0623) - 32-26-32 E Mail: [email protected] Innergy Power Corporation United States 9375 Customhouse Plaza Bldg 1, Suite J, San Diego, CA 92154 Tel: 1 619-710-0758 Fax: 1 619-710-0755 E Mail: [email protected]

ISSOL S.A./N.V. Belgium Quai de la Vesdre 7 B-4800 Verviers Belgium Tel: 32 498 294 782 Fax: 32 87 33 81 64 E Mail: [email protected] Istar Solar s.r.l. Italy Corso Garibaldi, 83, Potenza (PZ), 85100 Italy Tel: 39 0971 485157 Fax: 39 0971 651970 E mail: [email protected] ITALCOEL s.r.l., Italy Via della bonifica, sn, Vallemare, Pescara, I-65010, Italy

Tel: 39 085 9777 1 Fax: 39 085 9777 250 E Mail: [email protected] KD Solar Co., Ltd South Korea 12Fl, KD B/D , 4-4 Sunae, Bundang, Sungnam, Kyounggi, Korea Tel: 031 738 1901 Fax: 031 738 1999 E mail: [email protected] 01/31/20 [email protected] 70 Liselo (Pty )Ltd. South Africa

Lucky Power Techn Taiwan ology MSK Corporation (part of Suntech Power) Japan NexPower Technolo Taiwan gy Corp. PO Box 52869 Wierda Park, 0149 South Africa Tel: 012 - 6616604 Fax: 012 - 6617165 E Mail: [email protected] No. 348, Shanying Rd., Gueishan Township, Taoyuan County 33341, Taiwan Tel: 886-3-3500730 Fax: 886-3-3500731 E Mail: [email protected]

17F Stec Joho Building 1-24-1, West Shinjuki, Tokyo 160-0023, Japan Tel: 81 3 3342 3881 Fax: 81 3 3342 6534 E Mail: [email protected] 8F, No.1, Jin-Shan 7th St., HsinChu, 300, Taiwan, ROC 5 Tel: 886 3 666 8286 Fax: 886 3 666 8285 E Mail: [email protected] Pacific SolarTech United States 44843 Fremont Blvd., Fremont, CA 94539 Tel: 1 510 979 1920 Fax: 1 510 979 1930 E Mail: [email protected]

Power4Africa Namibia P O Box 1316 Tsumeb Namibia Tel: (067) 22 2219 Fax: (067) 22 2251 E Mail: No. 26, Huaya 1st Rd., Guishan Shiang, Taoyuan County 333, Taiwan (Huaya Technology Park) Tel: 886 3 3180288 ext 1105 Fax: 886 3 3186118 E Mail: [email protected] Leadgate Industrial Park, Leadgate, County Durham DH8 7RS, UK Tel: 44 1207 500 000 Fax: 44 1207 591 979 E Mail: [email protected]

PST (Perfect Source Taiwan Technology Corp.) Romag Ltd 01/31/20 United Kingdom [email protected] 71 Saint-Gobain Glass-Solar Julicher Strasse 495, 52070 Aachen, Germany Scheuten The Solar Systems Netherlan BV ds

Tel: 31 77 463 3779 Van Heemskerckweg 9, NL- Fax: 31 77 463 3228 5928 LL Venlo (Blerick), The E Mail: Netherlands [email protected] Shenglong PVChina Tech Co., Ltd Suzhou Shenglong-solar PVTech Co.,Ltd Gangkou Development Zone Fenghuang Town, Zhang Jiagang City Jiangsu Province 215612 China Tel: 86 512 5848 7618 Fax: 86 512 5848 7851 E Mail: [email protected] Siliken Spain

Massamagrell, 36, Pol. Ind. Rafelbunyol, 46138, Rafelbunyol (Valencia), Spain Tel: 34 96 141 22 33 Fax: 34 96 141 05 14 E Mail: [email protected] Germany Ferdinand-Reich Strasse 1, D-09599 Freiberg/Saxony, Germany Tel: 49 3731 30145 50 Fax: 49 3731 30145 67 E Mail: [email protected] Solar Factory GmbH 01/31/20 Germany

Tel: 49 241 96 67 351 Fax: 49 241 96 67 241 E Mail: [email protected] [email protected] 72 Solara AG Germany Behringstr. 16, D-22765 Hamburg, Germany Tel: 49 40 39 10 65 0 Fax: 49 40 39 10 65 99 E Mail: [email protected] Solar-Fabrik AG Germany Munzinger Str. 10, 79111 Freiburg, Germany

Tel: 49 761 4000 0 Fax: 49 761 4000 199 E Mail: [email protected] SOLARIS d.o.o Croatia Tel: 385 (0)52 758 630 52466 NOVIGRAD, Sv. Vidal 32b, Croatia Fax: 385 (0)52 726 030 E Mail: [email protected] Solarnova, Produktions und Vertriebsgesellschaf t mbH Germany Tel: 49 4103 91 208 0 Am Marienhof 6, 22880 Wedel, Germany Fax: 49 4103 91 208 10 E Mail: [email protected] Solartron Co. Ltd

Thailand Tel: 66 (0) 2392 0224-6 38 Chavanich Bldg. 2/FL, Soi Salinimit Fax: 66 (0) 2381 2971 Sukhumvit 69, Bangkok 10110, Thailand E Mail: [email protected]/ Solarwatt SolarSysteme GmbH Germany Grenzstrae 28, D-01109 Dresden, Germany Tel: 49 351 88 95 - 0 Fax: 49 351 88 95 - 111 E Mail: [email protected] SOLON Photovoltaik GmbH Germany Ederstrasse 16, D-12059 Berlin, Germany

Tel: 49 30 /81 87 9 100 Fax: 49 30 81 87 9 110 E Mail: [email protected] Spire Solar Chicago United States The Chicago Center for Green Technology, 445 North Sacramento Blvd., Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA [email protected] Tel: 1 773 638-8700 Fax: 1 773 638-8701 E Mail: [email protected] 73 01/31/20 France Z.A.C. de la Tour 12/14 alle du Levant 69890 la Tour de Salvagny, France

Tel: 33 (0)4 78 48 88 50 Fax: 33 (0)4 78 19 44 83 E Mail: [email protected] TENESA (PTY) Ltd. South Africa 22 Harris Drive, Sunset Park, Ottery, Cape Town, South Africa 7790 Tel: 27 21 70 41 575 Fax: 27 21 73 96 11 E Mail: [email protected] Trina Solar Limited China Changzhou Jiangsu 213031 China Tel: 86-519-5485801 Fax: 86-519-5485802 E Mail: [email protected]

Webasto Systemcomponenete Germany n GmbH & Co KG Krainger Strasse 5, D-82131 Stockdorf, Germany Tel: 49 89 85794 940 Fax: 49 89 8577259 E Mail: Weihai Bluestar Terra Photovoltaic Co.,Ltd Huanshan Road, Eco.&Tech. Develop Zone, Weihai, China Tel: 86 631 5969535 Fax: 86 631 5960535 E Mail: [email protected] Total Energie SA China

Wuxi Suntech Power China Co., Ltd Tel: 86-510-5343323 17-6 Chang Jiang South Road,Wuxi New Fax: 86-576-7278009 District, China E Mail: Xi'an REW co., Ltd China No.11 WenJing North Road, The Tel: 86-29-86512451 Economic & Technological Development Fax: 86-29-86530350 Zone, Xi'an, China. E Mail: Xl Telecom Ltd India 335, Chandralok Complex, Secunderabad - 500 003 India

Tel: 91 40 27173827 Fax: 91 40 2784 0081 E Mail: [email protected] No 101 Chengzhong Road, Zhugang Town, Yuhuan City, Zhejiang Province, [email protected] China Tel: 86-576-7278148 Fax: 86-576-7278009 74 E Mail: [email protected] Yuhuan Solar Energy China 01/31/20 Source Co, Ltd SunWize Technologies Titan Energy Systems Ltd

01/31/20 United States 1155 Flatbush Road, Kingston, NY 12401 USA Tel: 1 845-336-0146 Fax: 1 845-336-0457 E Mail: [email protected] India 16 Aruna Enclave, Trimulgherry, Secunderabad, 500 015, India Tel: 91 40 779 1085 Fax: 91 40 779 5629 E Mail: [email protected] [email protected]

75 Shenzhen Sunshine Electronics Co Ltd China 4-6/F, No. 1 Building Nangang Industrial Park II Xili Town, Nanshan District Shenzhen Guangdong China Tel: (86 755) 27653478Fax: (86 755) 27653475 E Mail: SunWare GmbH & Co. KG Germany Dusseldorfer Strasse 80, DE-47239, Duisburg (Rumeln), Germany Tel: 49 2151 406045 Fax: 49 2151 406208 E Mail: Sunworld (Shanghai) Solar Energy Technology Co., Ltd China Rm.1501, Tongquan Building, No.678 Gubei Road Changning District, Shanghai, China Tel: 86 21 6295 9165Fax: 86 21 6295 9216E Mail: [email protected] 01/31/20

[email protected] 76 Energy Sustainability Discussion Where does suns energy go? 01/31/20 [email protected] 77 Sustainable Energy Technology Other Solar Thermal Reflecting mirrors, troughs,etc. Various designs, some tracking All use working fluid and turbine 01/31/20 [email protected]

78 Sustainable Energy Technology Photovoltaics Around for at least 6 decades Roots in space program (1950s) Many useful applications Not typically economical in central station generation. System capital cost of approx. $4,500-9,500/kW Power cost of $0.15 to $0.5/kWh Intermittent power (usually requires energy storage) Peak output often coincident with peak electrical demands. 01/31/20 [email protected] 79 Sustainable Energy Technology Large wind(>50kW) large and utility applications. 01/31/20 [email protected]

80 01/31/20 [email protected] 81 Sustainable Energy Technology Fuel Cells: System operation Fuel Cell Stack System integration is very important for both simple cycle & hybrid fuel cell system Fuel Processing Electric power Conversion Balance of plant 01/31/20 [email protected] 82

Sustainable Energy Technology Fuel Cell types 01/31/20 [email protected] 83 Sustainable Energy Technology Renewable hybrid Systems 01/31/20 [email protected] 84

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