Magnetism A Strangely Attractive Topic History #1 Term comes from the ancient Greek city of Magnesia, at which many natural magnets were found. We now refer to these natural magnets as lodestones (also spelled loadstone; lode means to lead or to attract) which contain magnetite, a natural magnetic material Fe3O4. Pliny the Elder (23-79 AD Roman) wrote of a hill near the river Indus that was made entirely of a stone that attracted iron. History #2 Chinese as early as 121 AD knew that an iron rod which had been brought near one of these natural magnets would acquire and retain the magnetic
propertyand that such a rod when suspended from a string would align itself in a north-south direction. Use of magnets to aid in navigation can be traced back to at least the eleventh century. asically, we knew the phenomenon existed an we learned useful applications for it. We just did not understand it. Finally, the Science Not until 1819 was a connection between electrical and magnetic phenomena shown. Danish scientist Hans Christian Oersted observed that a compass needle in the vicinity of a wire carrying electrical current was deflected! Let This Be a Lesson!
In 1831, Michael Faraday discovered that a momentary current existed in a circuit when the current in a nearby circuit was started or stopped Shortly thereafter, he discovered that motion of a magnet toward or away from a circuit could produce the same effect. The Connection is Made SUMMARY: Oersted showed that magnetic effects could be produced by moving electrical charges; Faraday and Henry showed that electric currents could be produced by moving magnets So.... *************************** All magnetic phenomena result
from forces between electric charges in motion. Looking in More Detail Ampere first suggested in 1820 that magnetic properties of matter were due to tiny atomic currents (close but not quite) All atoms exhibit magnetic effects Look at the electron configuration of iron: Any movement of an electron gives magnetism. However, most electrons are paired with another with opposite spin, cancelling out the magnetic properties. Magnetic Domain - occurs when the spins of electrons are aligned creating magnetic properties
Types of Magnetic Materials Soft magnetic materials, such as iron, are easily magnetized They also tend to lose their magnetism easily Hard magnetic materials, such as cobalt and nickel, are difficult to magnetize They tend to retain their magnetism For Every North, There is a South Like poles repel each other and unlike poles attract each other Similar to electric charges Magnetic poles cannot be isolated If a permanent magnetic is cut in half repeatedly, you will still have a north and a south pole
S N S N S N No Monopoles Allowed S N Magnets Have Magnetic Fields We will say that a moving charge sets up in the space around it a magnetic field, and it is the magnetic field which exerts a force on any other charge moving through it.
Magnetic fields are vector quantities.that is, they have a magnitude and a direction! Magnetic Fields A vector quantity Symbolized by B Direction is given by the direction a north pole of a compass needle points in that location Magnetic field lines can be used to show how the field lines, as traced out by a compass, would look Magnetic Field Lines, Bar Magnet
Iron filings are used to show the pattern of the field lines The direction of the field is the direction a north pole would point Magnetic Field Lines, Unlike Poles Iron filings are used to show the pattern of the electric field lines The direction of the field is the direction a north
pole would point Compare to the electric field produced by an electric dipole Magnetic Field Lines, Like Poles Iron filings are used to show the pattern of the electric field lines The direction of the field is the direction a north pole would point Compare to the electric field produced by like charges
Field Lines Around a Magnet The Concept of Fields Michael Faraday realized that ... A magnet has a magnetic field distributed throughout the surrounding space Magnetic Field Lines, sketch A compass can be used to show the direction of the magnetic field lines (a) A sketch of the magnetic field lines (b) What direction will a compass needle point when placed to the right of the magnet? N
1. 2. 3. 4. S To the left To the right Upward Downward 0% To e th le 0% ft To
e th rig ht 0% w Up 0% d ar w Do nw d ar
What direction will a compass needle point when placed above the magnet? N 1. 2. 3. 4. S To the left To the right Upward Downward 0% To e th le 0%
ft To e th rig ht 0% w Up 0% d ar w Do nw
d ar Magnetic and Electric Fields An electric field surrounds any stationary electric charge A magnetic field surrounds any moving electric charge A magnetic field surrounds any magnetic material Earths Magnetic Field The Earths geographic north pole corresponds to a magnetic south pole
The Earths geographic south pole corresponds to a magnetic north pole Earths Magnetic Field The Earths magnetic field resembles that achieved by burying a huge bar magnet deep in the Earths interior Magnetic Fields Long Straight Wire
A current-carrying wire produces a magnetic field The compass needle deflects in directions tangent to the circle The compass needle points in the direction of the magnetic field produced by the current Magnetic Field Around a Current Carrying Wire The right hand rule #1 - Grab the wire with your right hand with your thumb outstetched in the direction of the positive charge (conventional current) flow. Your fingers curl in a circle the
direction of the curl represents the direction of the magnetic field. Direction of the Field of a Long Straight Wire Right Hand Rule #1 Grasp the wire in your right hand Point your thumb in the direction of the current Your fingers will curl in the direction of the field A horizontal wire has protons moving from right to left. The magnetic field above the wire is in what direction? 1. 2.
3. 4. To the right To the left Coming towards the observer Going away from the observer 0% To e th rig ht To 0%
e th le 0% ft o gt in m Co w 0% . s.. d ar in Go
g aw ay ... rf o A vertical wire has electrons moving upward. The magnetic field to the left of the wire is in what direction? 1. 2. 3. 4. Coming toward the observer Going away from the observer.
Upward Downward 0% gt n i m o C ow d ar 0% ... in Go w
ga a . .. ro f y 0% w Up 0% d ar w Do nw d ar
A horizontal wire has electrons moving from right to left. The magnetic field above the wire is in what direction? 1. 2. 3. 4. To the right To the left Coming towards the observer Going away from the observer 0% To e th
rig ht To 0% e th le 0% ft o gt in m Co w 0%
. s.. d ar in Go g aw ay ... rf o A vertical wire has protons moving upward. The magnetic field to the left of the wire is in what direction? 1. 2. 3.
4. Coming toward the observer Going away from the observer. Upward Downward 0% g in m Co w to d ar 0%
... g in o G aw a ... ro f y w Up 0% 0% d
ar d ar w Do nw Magnetic Fields When moving through a magnetic field, a charged particle experiences a magnetic force This force has a maximum value when the charge moves perpendicularly to the magnetic field lines This force is zero when the charge moves along the field lines Magnetic Fields, cont
One can define a magnetic field in terms of the magnetic force exerted on a test charge Similar to the way electric fields are defined F = qv(sin)B F B qv sin Force on a charged particle in a magnetic field: Fmag = qv(sin)B F = magnetic force (N)
B = magnetic field (T) q = charge of particle in magnetic field (C) v = velocity of charged particle (m/ s) = angle between charged particle motion and magnetic field (if perpendicular, sin = 1. Finding the Direction of Magnetic Force Experiments show that the direction of the magnetic force is always perpendicular to both v and B Fmax occurs when
v is perpendicular to B F = 0 when v is parallel to B Right Hand Rule #3 Hold your right hand open Place your fingers in the direction of B Place your thumb in the direction of v The direction of the force on a positive charge is directed out of your palm If the charge is negative, the force is opposite that
determined by the right hand rule Magnetic Force on a Current Carrying Conductor A force is exerted on a currentcarrying wire placed in a magnetic field The current is a collection of many charged particles in motion The direction of the force is given by right hand rule #3 A proton moves to the left producing an upward magnetic force. What direction is the field? 1. 2. 3. 4.
5. Up and out of the page Downward into the page To the right To the left Inward towards the observer Outward away from Up 6. 0% a nd of t
ou ... w Do nw d ar in 0% to ... To e th
0% rig ht To 0% e th le 0% ft ar w n I d
w to a . s .. d r Ou tw d ar 0% f ay aw ...
An electron moves north producing a magnetic field to the west. What direction is the force? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Up and out of the page Downward into the page North South East West 0% Up
a nd of t ou ... w Do nw d ar in 0% to
... 0% r No th 0% th u So 0% s Ea t 0% es W t
An electron moves west producing a downward magnetic force. What direction is the magnetic field? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Up and out of the page Downward into the page North South East West 0% Up
a nd of t ou ... w Do nw d ar in 0% to
... 0% r No th 0% th u So 0% s Ea t 0% es W t
A magnetic field pointing south creates an upward force on a proton. What direction was this proton moving? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Up and out of the page Downward into the page North South East West 0% Up
an d t ou ... f o w Do nw d ar in 0% to
... 0% r No th 0% h ut o S 0% s Ea t 0% t es
W Force on a Wire The blue xs indicate the magnetic field is directed into the page The x represents the tail of the arrow Blue dots would be used to represent the field directed out of the page The represents the head of the arrow In this case, there is
no current, so there Force on a Wire, cont B is into the page Point your fingers into the page The current is up the page Point your thumb up the page The force is to the left Your palm should be pointing to the left Force on a Wire, final
B is into the page Point your fingers into the page The current is down the page Point your thumb down the page The force is to the right Your palm should be pointing to the right Force on a Wire, equation
The magnetic force is exerted on each moving charge in the wire The total force is the sum of all the magnetic forces on all the individual charges producing the current F = B I sin is the angle between B and I The direction is found by the right hand rule #1, pointing your thumb in the direction of I instead of v. Electromagnetic Induction Usually caused by a circuit that is moving near a fixed magnet, therefore changing the strength and/or orientation of the magnetic field. Electromagnetic Induction
In electromagnetic induction, a current may be induced without a battery or power source due to a changing magnetic field Transformers Transformers are used to change the voltage (or emf electromotive force). Transformers Transformers use primary (input) and secondary (output) coils around a soft iron core to either step up (increase) or step down (decrease) the voltage. Transformers
The voltage created is directly proportional to the number of coils. p = primary s = secondary n = number of coils
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