Doc. dr. sc. Pero Vidan Faculty of Maritime Studies Split E-mail: [email protected] Gdynia, 13 May 2014 Ecuadoreanregistered ship Jessica, spilled 175,000 gallons of diesel and bunker oil into the sea off the Galapagos Islands At 10 a.m., March 17, 1978, the supertanker Amoco Cadiz broke in two, releasing its entire cargo of 1.6 million barrels (250,000 m3)
Management errors Outside control of crew: Lack of skills: Crew management errors: 33%, 19% 10% (Source: NTSB, DNV) Preoccupation with minor (technical) problems Failure to delegate tasks and responsibilities Failure to set priorities Inadequate monitoring Failure to utilize available data
Failure to communicate intent and plans Failure to detect and challenge deviations from SOPs, rules and safe actions 57 %, 71% The balance Safety is often a trade-off between optimising Production or Safety P Adapted from Reason S An orgnisation must know where it stands in order to make informed
decisions Reasons Swiss Cheese Model Holes caused by actions Holes caused by latent problems-pathogens Human weaknesses Stress factors: Danger
Hostile environment (temperature, motions, etc.) Time pressure Workload
Distractions Performance pressure Social interaction Consequences: Decision errors
Restricted attention Distorted time-perception Weakened short-term memory Frequent change of problem
solving strategies Human weaknesses Fatigue: Inadequate rest Disturbance of Consequences:
biological rhythm Heavy cognitive work Physical work Slower reactions Less capable of creative problem solving
Difficulties to remember data Denial of negative messages Human weaknesses Hazardous attitude: I Consequences: know best
I am not good enough Captain failing to listen to First Officer Third Eng. failing to provide critical info Culture Culture is The way we do things around here
and why we do them. Carroll & Quijada (2004). http://www.safetycenter.navy.mil/photo/arch Personality Behavior Social environment: Family Schools National culture Professional culture Organizational culture
Safety culture Attitudes Values Skills (SOPs, etc.) CRM/MCRM training Knowledge, experiences NASA - Good Teams
Good situational awareness - anticipated next condition Cognitive resources free - secured time to think Relevant information early - during time of low workload Built a shared mental model - a common understanding
Conservative strategies - kept options open Decisions were sensitive to constraints. Resources & Environment Explicit task allocation - clear action commands and delegation
Monitored progress. Verbalised stratagies Dr. Judith Orasano Some solutions from CRM Focus on willingness to : Manage Trade-offs Follow Rules & procedures Avoid violations Inter-personal relations & communication Team work Understand human error and manage it ! Can be divided into two groups: Physical
Mental Physical: Sleep disorder
Fatigue Motivation Seasickness Speed and walking Drugs and alcohol Hunger and thirst Physical discomfort and pain Disease and infection Mental Current and situational stress Change in time perception Perception impossibility Concern and anger Loss of memory
Motivation Seasickness can be dangerous for seamen because it causes attention deficit. Prevention: walking restriction, nicotin, alcohol, caffeine and salt avoidance. Do not talk to the person who has seasickness. Stress is basically a physical and psychological mechanism that starts working when we are exposed to strain of any kind physical, psychological or social to make it possible for us to
cope with whatever caused the strain - it prepares the organism to cope with the new situation.. Good Stress Bad Stress Your own personality
Your family Your working surroundings The actual situation On a ship environmental stress
Panic amygdala hijack Increased stress tolerance Long term effects How does stress influence human performance? P e r f o r
m a n c e 1. Experienced/skilled experience / skill low Activation high
2. Low P e r f o r m a n c e low
Activation high rain Activity level Time rain activity level Time Stress is the product of a whole lifestyle. It is not just the product of an occasional crisis! BUT a crisis can accelerate the effects! Leading
to IQ dump Consequently each person must learn to monitor personal internal stress-levels (and symptoms) and find ways to relieve such conditions!
Insomnia Interrupted sleep Nightmares Excessive sleeping Lack of energy Fatigue Hyperactivity Mood changes Worry Depression Stress reduces the effect of work and prevents judgement
Them affects: Physical rhythm Human clock allows vigilance through the day and good sleep or lack of attention at night Problems on board Adaptation to night work or early morning job Day and night changing during shifts Biological rhythm of most people is updated 1-2 hours per day The human body is the most sensitive to light around 5:00 a.m Shifts in the clockwise direction: Morning Afternoon It is easier to get used to the night shift than mixed ones Medical
care Loss of productivity Loss of material Administration cost Costs of social help and of life quality improving Sweden categorized the risk of life on: Decks: 1. Embroidery 2. Hatches handling 3. Working at height Machine: 1. Tools handling in a limited place
2. Handling with big machines and tools 3. Carrying scales and ladders Hotel: bif 1. Slippery floor 2. hot or sharp objects due to the rolling of the shipOpi problemi: 3. Ladders 4. Slippery or uneven deck floor Danish research shows that 50% of injuries are related to work on the deck Other critical activities are walking and working in the engine room
Suggestions for improvements: Terms of walking on the deck, scales, climbing a ladder Gangway and access to the ship-shore Assessment of safety equipment for embroidery Lashing Access Safety Wheelhouse: enough handles and avoidance of sharp edges Fatigue is one of the most dangerous phenomena on board. It is cause of the false judgments,
management and operations. Fatigue often occurs due to improper organization of work on the ship, but ship's specific environment as well, etc. Fatigue is considered undesirable physical and mental state of crew members. It is a frequent cause of human errors that results in distress (Figures 1 and 2) as it reduces the ability of perception and thinking. The
most common causes of collisions COLREG violation wrong decission poor looking poor training poor familiarisation fatigue unexperience poor communication between crew failure of communication devices poor use of radar 0
The most common causes of stranding broj pojava u vremenskom razdoblju poor decission fatigue unexperiance poor communication poor use of radar igmorance areas wrong passage plan wrong percepction of tiredness poor visibility poor use of ECDIS
failure of devices 0 2 4 6 8 10 12
14 The growth of technology standards of construction and equipment of ships and maritime competitiveness of the market has led to the emergence of saving the human workforce and reducing costs at the expense of the crew. Reducing these costs included the emergence of hiring cheaper crews from the east. These crews are often less educated.
Percentege of crew 40 (%) 20 0 Phillippines Russia Ukraine Poland Crew nationality
China Greek Croatia Another phenomenon that follows global maritime industry is to reduce the number of crew to "minimum safety" given by the legislature of the state of the vessel (Minimum Manning Document).
Fatigue is a phenomenon that accompanies human activity, reduces operating efficiency and adversely affects the attitude towards work. If one looks through the production, fatigue is defined by reducing the performance over time. Crews often do more contracts for small amounts of money. Time longer contracts of seamen mean increased fatigue arising from such relationships and lifestyle.
Studies have shown that the speed of doing business increases with shorter working day. During a long day of work worker fights fatigue actively by frequent and longer breaks and a slower pace of work. Lengthening of working time significantly increases the negative effects of fatigue. Figure 4. Average of daily working and overtime hours according to the workplace
Figure 5. Dependence on nights sleep and composure Full awareness Medium awareness Low awareness Total sleepiness Time of sleep previous night Figure 6. Dependence on nights sleep and composure
Level of awareness Full awareness Medium awareness Low awareness Total sleepiness Consecutive days of reduce sleeping Izvor: http:// ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2010/12/f atigue-on-chemical-tankers-capt-ajit. htm
The ILO and the ITF do not allow exceeding the scheduled number of hours of overtime because of the level of safety. Therefore shipper and administration regulate by the contract of seaman the
by collective agreement for seafarers number of overtime hours. The overtime hours include hours outside of working hours, which include: maneuver of the ship periodic maintenance and repair of the ship stay in the port enhanced marine guard because of the conditions (low visibility, bad weather, etc.) unadjusted schedule of stays in port and navigation time zone changes other hours outside of working hours. Research have shown that except insomnia other factors affect the fatigue; light
noise vibrations ventilation temperature and ship movement. Figure 7. The effect of the employee during the day Perfomance Working hours Izvor: http://ajitvadakayil.blogspot.com/2010/12/fatigue-on-chemical-tankers-capt-ajit.htm
Fatigue has a negative impact on safe work. It increases human error. Errors occur as a result of lack of mental function. The immediate effects of human fatigue are: error in the judge loss of productivity errors in decisions injury at work. In the ship's organization fatigue effects the occurrence of human errors, which often manifests by: accident collision damage to the ship or cargo
by environmental pollution. Fatigue can be divided into five categories: physical discomfort loss of energy loss of motivation sleepiness. Fatigue affects the health of the seamen and causes: cardiovascular diseases hypertension diabetes stomach problems
insomnia. In addition, fatigue affects the social aspect of the seamen and the organizing crew and causes: problems with family reduces workperformance increases the number of errors increases sleepiness reduces teamwork reduces motivation increases physical effort. The intensity of fatigue is not manifested at all crew members the same, but it depends
on: age lifestyles rhythm of life anamnesis weight previous working experience and habit. Insomnia causes a decrease in energy, increase of fatigue and exhaustion. Fatigue caused in the history some of the greatest maritime accidents: Stranding the Exxon Valdez (1989)
The fire in the cargo holds Kometik (2006) Stranding Algomarine (2008). Fatigue can be prevented by proper organization of activities on board. Assessment of human capabilities for performing the tasks is of crucial importance. Therefore, an officer during the organization of work on board must be familiar with: culture of crew members age of crew members nationality work experience physical fitness training programmes
Officers are trained for work organization through special programs: Psychosociology, human resources management of the bridge (Bridge Resource Management-BRM) and engine room (Engine Management team-ETM), etc. They are explained individual, national and cultural differences of multinational crew, their advantages and defects. In addition, officers are taught the proper work organization, avoiding stressful situations, behavior in crisis situations, etc. Facts:
The relaxation time of the organism Reducing of metabolism Pressure, pulse and respiration decline The muscle tension relief Resting in a dream is more intense at the beginning and lower at the end. If we wake up before time, rest is not complete. Rest periods for adults are on average 7 hours and 23 minutes on working days and one hour longer on non-working days (weekend) Stages of sleep Phase 1: Transition from vigilance to sleep Phase 2: Sleeping with relaxing in smaller extent Phase 3 i 4: Sleeping with bigger relaxing, vigilance is harder REM phase = we are dreaming, brain is active. REM is not important for short-term but for longterm memory. Non-sleeping:
Overwork Long vigilance Possible disorders the day earlier Nightwork Morning work Sleep interrupts clock in the final stage of sleep The period of sleep is often 5 hours Increased sleepiness in the day, especially in the afternoon. Increased risk of accidents Evening work No sleepiness and work is safer Problem can be if you start earlier next week (shift change)
Other factors Long working shift (longer than 10 hours) Short rest periods (less than 11 hours) Monotonous, hard, stressful work Drug use (abuse) Sleeping problems occur in the 45 year of life Antimeasures Sleep will be compensated by increased sleep. Missed night of sleep can be replaced by another Break of 30 minutes is required, especially if there are messy shifts Schedule techniques Night shift should not be longer than four repeatedly Rotation in a clockwise direction Maximum of 8 hours, 11 hours of rest
If you work the night shift Have peace of sleeping Plan your sleep Slumber before shift Avoid heavy meals, especially carbo hydrates and fiber food Avoid taking fluids before sleeping Measures against fatigue Change your work Sit in uncomfortable position Stand up Take a walk Breath fresh air Expose to noise Amplify the light Talk to your colleagues
Coffee Song These anti measures give short-term performance, the best anti measure is rest. Caffeine stimulates alertness (Coca-Cola, tea contains 1/3 the caffeine of regular coffee). The normal dose of coffee gives vigilance. The effect lasts 6 hours, and the maximum effect gives the first cup. Nicotine is a stimulant. Smokers are worse sleepers than non-smokers. Alcohol increases sleepiness. Sleeping and anti-seasickness pills increase
sleepiness. The suppression of deep sleep has a negative impact. Exon Valdez Estonia 3 truths: Sea is dangerous You cannot change the rules of nature Men can go wrong The
Master does not use proper human resources, only one man on the bridge. It is important to have it, so the following should be considered: Time (past or required) Position Speed Automatism Resources Personality, health, attitude Frequent questions Take
information-What is happening? Answer- What does it mean for you and the ship? Foresight- What can happen? Examples: noone is navigating the ship, veering of the ship, information quality, susceptibility Thank you! Questions???
Why were the Aztecs defeated? E. Napp The Aztecs In this lesson, students will be able to define the following terms: The Aztecs Tenochtitlan Religious Beliefs of the Aztecs Aztec Human Sacrifice Cortes The Toltecs The Toltecs built an empire...
3D Mapping Robots Intelligent Robotics School of Computer Science Jeremy Wyatt James Walker What Are 3D Mapping Robots and Their Uses? Robots which produce a 3-dimensional model of their environment from the data they collect They can be used by...
Chapter 1 HW Solutions ... strontium sulfite E) cobalt (II) bromide (cobaltous bromide) F) tin (II) iodide (stannous iodide) G) chromium (III) nitrate (chromic nitrate) #42 continued H) zinc hydrogen phosphate (notice the lack of roman numerals—it has a definite...
Produção Gráfica Produtor gráfico Define tipos de impressão, papel, tinta Orçamentos gráficos Folders Displays Embalagens Etc. Acompanha produção Produção Gráfica Passo a passo Evolução Monotipos Tipos móveis Produção Gráfica Linotipo Caixinhas de tipos Chumbo derretido Chapa pronta para impressora Reutilização...
Bohr Diagrams. Bohr Diagrams show each of the energy levels of the atom. Show every electron that the atom has orbiting around it. These electrons are organized into the different shells or orbital levels. 1st level - 2 electrons. 2nd...
The spirit of the Catholic Reformation was: A spirit of zeal and ardor for the faith. ... The first agency of Catholic reform was the papacy. Paul III's pontificate (1534-1549) witnessed the founding of the Jesuit order, the opening of...
optics is virtually linear for several hundred beam . sigmas (x and y and . D. E/E) ... dispersion and x-y coupling were designed at Frascati and tested at DIAMOND and SLS (synchrotron light sources with best present values of...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!