Slide 1 Ch 8 Some hints about analysis First try to establish morphemes. If there is allomorphy, list all of the alternants (remember some morphemes dont show up on the surface due to deletion). Then try to figure out what phonological thing is causing the alternation (phonological environments, etc). List the alternants and what the

environment that they occur in. Then account for this alternation with phonological rules. Be sure to consider if there are multiple rules, do they interact? Do they need to be ordered? Need to answer why not if they dont dont just say they dont need to be ordered but prove that as much as if they do need to be ordered! Slide 2 Ch 8

Ch 8 Morphophonemic Analysis Rule application and derivation and order: Feeding = Two rules are said to be in a feeding order if the earlier rule creates environments in which the later rule can apply. Bleeding = If two rules, A and B, are in a bleeding order, the application of rule A causes a decrease in the number of forms to which rule B can apply. An example: suppose rule A changes some consonants from voiceless to voiced in some environments and rule B only applies to voiceless consonants. The application of rule A before rule B would mean that fewer forms are available

for rule B to apply to. Counter Feeding = The ordering of two phonological rules so that Rule A, which could provide contexts for the operation of Rule B, is prevented from doing so by being ordered after Rule B Counter Bleeding = The ordering of two phonological rules so that Rule A, which could remove contexts in which Rule B operates, is prevented from doing so by being ordered after Rule B. Slide 3

Ch 8 Ch 8 Morphophonemic Analysis Ch 8 Slide 4 Ch 8 Morphophonemic Analysis Morphophonemic Analysis

1. Examine data and find morphemes 2. Find all alternating morphemes and id allomorphs 3.

Within each allomorph, locate segments that alternate 4. Consider logical possibilities, set up underlying forms, so that each allomorph can be derived from underlying form via phonological rules. Ch 8 Slide 5

Ch 8 Morphophonemic Analysis Morphophonemic Analysis 1. Keep segments that do not alternate as underlying 2. Follow hypothesis about alternating segments did it start out as A or B?

3. Be sure underlying is uniform for each of the paradigm Dont analyze in a direction opposite to that of a neutralization like final obstruent devoicing, make sure that if you have a contrast in forms in certain environments but not others (end of word), then this environment is probably a neutralizing one and you should assume the underlying forms contrast

Slide 6 Ch 8 Ch 8 Morphophonemic Analysis Isolation form is a good bet of the underlying morpheme for the stem but not always! See Lardil info below Slide 7

Ch 8 Ch 8 Morphophonemic Analysis Should be [anterior] Slide 8 Ch 8

Ch 8 Morphophonemic Analysis Slide 9 Ch 8 Ch 8 Morphophonemic Analysis What are the morphemes? What are the choices?

Slide 10 Ch 8 Ch 8 Morphophonemic Analysis Slide 11 Ch 8

Ch 8 Morphophonemic Analysis But why those vowels? Deletion easier to explain than epenthesis! Slide 12 Ch 8 Ch 8 Morphophonemic Analysis

Whats the problem here? Show u~a alternation Slide 13 Ch 8 Ch 8 Morphophonemic Analysis 2nd is better because it doesnt change wankan to wankun

Slide 14 Ch 8 Ch 8 Morphophonemic Analysis Based on these data, we can say that final vowel lowering applied to both front and back high vowels

Ch 8 Slide 15 Ch 8 Morphophonemic Analysis This alternation requires yet another rule: Ch 8

Slide 16 Ch 8 Morphophonemic Analysis These rules get us to this point: Slide 17 Ch 8 Ch 8 Morphophonemic Analysis

Another problem in more data: Whered that k come from? Slide 18 Ch 8 Ch 8 Morphophonemic Analysis More problems: Notice that we can explain all but uninflected there is a zero final

vowel that alternates with other forms of paradigm! Slide 19 Ch 8 Ch 8 Morphophonemic Analysis Another rule is needed what is it? Again, deletion better than epenthesis, but need to make sure dont delete final vowel in forms like:

Slide 20 Ch 8 Ch 8 Morphophonemic Analysis Leads us to this: papi doesnt undergo Apocope because only 2 syllables = rule doesnt apply Slide 21

Ch 8 Ch 8 Morphophonemic Analysis Now what happened to 2nd consonant and final vowel of stem??? Slide 22 Ch 8

Ch 8 Morphophonemic Analysis Now what happened to 2nd consonant and final vowel of stem??? Wed expect: Slide 23 Ch 8 Ch 8 Morphophonemic Analysis ALSO applies to underlying clusters without final vowel:

Ch 8 Slide 24 Ch 8 Morphophonemic Analysis We need following rule to explain: Slide 25 Ch 8

Ch 8 Morphophonemic Analysis Now what happened to this last consonant and vowel? Not a cluster, but must be deletion because couldnt explain epenthesis of all these possibilities Slide 26 Ch 8

Ch 8 Morphophonemic Analysis Rule X needs to account for these data and data below as well Ch 8 Slide 27 Ch 8 Morphophonemic Analysis But not these:

Slide 28 Ch 8 Ch 8 Morphophonemic Analysis The ones that stay are [-distributed] so we write the rule as: Slide 29

Ch 8 Ch 8 Morphophonemic Analysis Slide 30 Ch 8 Ch 8 Morphophonemic Analysis

Ch 8 Slide 31 Ch 8 Morphophonemic Analysis Why must they be ordered? Slide 32

Ch 8 Ch 8 Morphophonemic Analysis Ch 8 Slide 33 Ch 8 Morphophonemic Analysis

feeds Counterfed by feeds Bleeds, counterfed by