Life in the Texas Republic - Alvin Independent School District
Life in the Texas Republic Subtitle Homestead Act of 1839 Many settlers of the early 1800s owed the U.S. debts Stephen F. Austin was able to get laws passed that protected land grants from seizure by creditors The Republic of Texas continued this with the Homestead Act of 1839 Safeguarded land up to 50 acres and the homestead from creditors Homestead familys home and land Immigration Immigration agents person licensed and paid in land or money
to bring settlers into a country Texas wanted to increase population by bringing more immigrants German Emigration Company Germany had a surplus of laborers encouraged emigration New markets for both countries Financial failure but brought over more than 7,000 immigrants to Texas New Braunfels, Fredericksburg Hardships Resources were a draw Rivers, farmland, new towns
Hardships Native raids were a problem Disease Harsh weather conditions Those that survived where influential in Texas Architecture Design and layout of towns
Music Social traditions Towns of Texas In the Northeast Towns established along rivers; i.e., Dallas along the Trinity Steamboats carried goods Natural resources and geographic features encouraged settlement Salt mines Southeast Moving lumber and corps along rivers helped to establish towns Natives Discouraged settlement in the west Waco was an exception Scottish immigrant settled in 1845
Minorities Mexican Texans During the Republic Mexicans migrated into Central and southern Texas; They were previously further west and at the southern border Maintained culture; took part in politics Friction between Tejanos and Anglo communities was common Anglo Americans viewed Tejanos with suspicion and prejudice Some lands were taken from them by force; courts would return land but sometimes wouldnt Free African Americans Population very small; moved to Texas in the 1820s Mexican law allowed full citizenship William Goyens Came from N. Carolina Blacksmith Served as an interpreter to Sam Houston during Texas Revolution with Natives in East Texas Became wealthy with real estate endeavors After Revolution - rights for AA were restricted Denied citizenship Right to marry limited
Could not gain permanent residence without government approval Those entering after independence from Mexico must leave within two years or lose freedom Some gained permission to stay Goyens included Agriculture Farms Plantations Small Family Farms less common Most farms didnt rely heavily on
slaves Land was mostly dedicated to subsistence crops fed the family living on the homestead Corn was a major crop for Texas Small farmers usually set aside a few acres for cash crops crops grown for sale; cotton most common Livestock was raised on small farms Large amounts of cash crops Cotton and sugarcane most common Slavery was relied upon Planted, tended and harvest crops
Most cotton plantations were located in lower Colorado, Brazos and Trinity River areas best soil Main sugarcane production areas was Brazoria County Ranching Began with the Spanish brought cattle, horses, sheep and other livestock Cattle Ranching Spanish in Texas began to drive herds to New Orleans in the late 1700s
Anglos copied Spanish styles saddles, equipment and herding practices Good alternative to farming Important industry during the Republic Longhorn, mix of Spanish and English cattle hardy breed; resistance to disease Sheep and Goat Ranching In the beginning, the Spanish raised for meat American settlers revived the industry after it dwindled with the Spanish Produced more for wool Slavery Early Republic about 5,000 enslaved African Americans; by 1845, about 30,000 Cash crops relied on slaves Allowed for the economy to grow Work Cotton plantations and sugar cane fields; house slaves Some skilled blacksmiths, carpenters, bricklayers
Provided basics food, clothing and shelter; little else Lived in small, dirt-floored cabins Attempted to maintain a social life; music, religion, families Family members could be sold Denied basic human rights Industry Agriculture main industry Population growth = need for more farmers = need for specialized equipment = need for blacksmiths Growth of towns needed services Doctors, lawyers, teachers, ministers and other professionals
Needed lumber for homes and stores = sawmills Needed more grain = gristmills Cattle industry grew Used all parts of cattle hides, tallow (fat), meat Transportation Travelers by foot, horseback, wagons, stagecoach Stagecoach more expensive; carried passengers, parcels and mail Most popular prior to railroad construction Waterways Crossings ferries: carried wagons and people across water Steamboats carried passengers and freight; larger rivers Railroads Required money Republic couldnt afford it Possible after Statehood (1850s)
Communication Mail, newspapers Telegraph 1840s opened in Texas in 1854 Social Life Social life even in Isolation Many families lived on ranches or farms spread far apart from one another Gathered for corn husking parties House raising Hunting and fishing Women Made quilts quilting bees
Dancing; polkas, boleros, waltzes Wealthy ballroom style Fiestas religious and cultural traditions Religion Catholicism a big part of history Immigration brought variety Health & Education Few trained doctors lived in towns; rare in rural communities First hospital in Texas Galveston 1851 Lamar set aside land for public education system no system in place until much later (1876) Education home or private teachers
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