Lexical Semantic + Students Presentations

Lexical Semantic + Students Presentations

Lexical Semantic + Students Presentations ICS 482 Natural Language Processing Lecture 27: Husni Al-Muhtaseb 02/23/20 1 ICS 482 Natural Language Processing Lecture 27: Lexical Semantic + Students Presentations Husni Al-Muhtaseb 02/23/20 2 NLP Credits and Acknowledgment These slides were adapted from presentations of the Authors of the book SPEECH and LANGUAGE PROCESSING: An Introduction to Natural Language Processing, Computati

onal Linguistics, and Speech Recognition and some modifications from presentations found in the WEB by several scholars including the following NLP Credits and Acknowledgment If your name is missing please contact me muhtaseb At Kfupm. Edu. sa NLP Credits and Acknowledgment Husni Al-Muhtaseb James Martin Jim Martin Dan Jurafsky Sandiway Fong Song young in Paula Matuszek Mary-Angela Papalaskari Dick Crouch Tracy Kin L. Venkata Subramaniam Martin Volk Bruce R. Maxim

Jan Haji Srinath Srinivasa Simeon Ntafos Paolo Pirjanian Ricardo Vilalta Tom Lenaerts Heshaam Feili Bjrn Gambck Christian Korthals Thomas G. Dietterich Devika Subramanian Duminda Wijesekera Lee McCluskey David J. Kriegman Kathleen McKeown Michael J. Ciaraldi David Finkel Min-Yen Kan Andreas Geyer-Schulz Franz J. Kurfess Tim Finin Nadjet Bouayad Kathy McCoy Hans Uszkoreit Azadeh Maghsoodi Khurshid Ahmad Staffan Larsson

Robert Wilensky Feiyu Xu Jakub Piskorski Rohini Srihari Mark Sanderson Andrew Elks Marc Davis Ray Larson Jimmy Lin Marti Hearst Andrew McCallum Nick Kushmerick Mark Craven Chia-Hui Chang Diana Maynard James Allan Martha Palmer julia hirschberg Elaine Rich Christof Monz Bonnie J. Dorr Nizar Habash Massimo Poesio David Goss-Grubbs Thomas K Harris John Hutchins Alexandros Potamianos

Mike Rosner Latifa Al-Sulaiti Giorgio Satta Jerry R. Hobbs Christopher Manning Hinrich Schtze Alexander Gelbukh Gina-Anne Levow Guitao Gao Qing Ma Zeynep Altan Previous Lectures NLP Applications - Chatting with Alice Introduction and Phases of an NLP system Finite State Automata & Regular Expressions & languages Morphology: Inflectional & Derivational Parsing and Finite State Transducers, Porter Stemmer Statistical NLP Language Modeling N Grams, Smoothing Parts of Speech - Arabic Parts of Speech

Syntax: Context Free Grammar (CFG) & Parsing Parsing: Earleys Algorithm Probabilistic Parsing Probabilistic CYK (Cocke-Younger-Kasami) Dependency Grammar Invited Speech: Lexicons and Morphology Semantics: Representing meaning Semantics: First Order Predicate Calculus Semantic Analysis: Syntactic-Driven Semantic Analysis February Sunday, 23, 202 Information Extraction 0 6 Today's Lecture Students Presentations

Continue Lexical Semantics (Ch 16) Sunday, February 23, 202 0 7 Students Presentations Last AbdiRahman Daoud - Online Arabic Handwriting Recognition Using HMM Abdul Rahman Al Khaldi - Statistical Transliteration for EnglishArabic Cross Sunday, February 23, 202 0 8 Lexical Semantics (Chapter 16) 02/23/20

9 Spoken input For speech understanding Basic Process of NLU Phonological / morphological analyzer Sequence of words He likes Ali. SYNTACTIC COMPONENT He likes Phonological & morphological rules Grammatical Knowledge Indicating relations between words

Syntactic structure (parse tree) Ali SEMANTIC INTERPRETER Semantic rules, Lexical semantics Selectional restrictions Logical form x likes(x, Ali) CONTEXTUAL REASONER likes(Sami, Ali) Sunday, February 23, 202 0 Thematic Roles Pragmatic & World Knowledge

Meaning Representation 10 Words (Input) Parsing Words (Response) Lexicon and Grammar Syntactic Structure and Logical Form of Response Syntactic Structure and Logical Form Contextual Interpretation Realisation Discourse Context Utterance Planning

Meaning of Response Final Meaning Application Context NLP Sunday, February 23, 202 0 Application Reasoning 11 Meaning Traditionally, meaning in language has been studied from three perspectives The meaning of a text or discourse The meanings of individual sentences or utterances The meanings of individual words We started in the middle, now well move down to words and then we should move back up to discourse

Sunday, February 23, 202 0 12 Word Meaning We didnt assume much about the meaning of words when we talked about sentence meanings Verbs provided a template-like predicate argument structure Nouns were practically meaningless constants There has be more to it than that Sunday, February 23, 202 0 13 Preliminaries

Whats a word? Lexeme: an entry in the lexicon that includes Types, tokens, stems, roots, inflected forms, etc... Lexeme: An entry in a lexicon consisting of a pairing of a form with a single meaning representation Lexicon: A collection of lexemes an orthographic representation a phonological form a symbolic meaning representation or sense Dictionary entries: Red (red) n: the color of blood or a ruby Blood (bluhd) n: the red liquid that circulates in the heart, arteries and veins of animals

Sunday, February 23, 202 0 14 Relation Among Lexemes & Their Senses Homonymy Synonymy Polysemy Metonymy Hyponymy/Hypernym Meronymy Antonymy Sunday, February 23, 202 0 15 Relation Among Lexemes & Their Senses Homonymy: Lexemes that share a form Phonological,

orthographic or both example: Bat( wooden stick-like thing) vs Bat ( flying scary mammal thing) Sunday, February 23, 202 0 16 Synonymy Different ways of expressing related concepts Examples cat, feline, Siamese cat

Overlaps with basic and subordinate levels Synonyms are almost never truly substitutable: Used in different contexts Have different implications This is a point of debate Sunday, February 23, 202 0 17 Polysemy Most words have more than one sense Homonym: same word, different meaning bank (river) bank (financial)

Polysemy: different senses of same word That dog has floppy ears. He has a good ear for jokes. bank (financial) has several related senses Sunday, February 23, 202 0 the building, the institution, the notion of where money is stored 18 Metonymy Use one aspect of something to stand for the whole Newscast: The White House released new figures today. Metaphor: Assuming the White house can release figures (like a person) Sunday, February 23, 202

0 19 Hyponymy/Hypernym ISA relation Related to Superordinate and Subordinate level categories hyponym(robin,bird) hyponym(bird,animal) hyponym(emus,bird) A is a hypernym of B if B is a type of A A is a hyponym of B if A is a type of B Sunday, February 23, 202 0 20 Basic-Level Categories Folk biology:

{Unique beginner}: plant, animal Life form: tree, bush, flower Generic name: pine, oak, maple, elm Specific name: Ponderosa pine, white pine - Varietals name: Western Ponderosa pine No overlap between levels Level 3 is basic Corresponds to genus Folk biological categories correspond accurately to scientific biological categories only at the basic level Sunday, February 23, 202 0 21

Psychologically Primary Levels SUPERORDINATE animal furniture BASIC LEVEL dog chair SUBORDINATE terrier rocker Children take longer to learn superordinate Superordinate not associated with mental images or motor actions ! Sunday, February 23, 202 0 22 Meronymy Parts-of relation part of(beak , bird)

part of(bark , tree) Transitive conceptually but not lexically: The knob is a part of the door. The door is a part of the house. ? The knob is a part of the house ? Sunday, February 23, 202 0 23 Antonymy Lexical opposites antonym(large, small) antonym(big, small) antonym(big, little) but not large, little

Sunday, February 23, 202 0 24 Thesauri and Lexical Relations Polysemy: Same word, different senses of meaning Slightly different concepts expressed similarly Synonyms: Different words, related senses of meanings Different ways to express similar concepts Thesauri help draw all these together Thesauri also commonly define a set of relations between terms that is similar to lexical relations

Sunday, February 23, 202 0 25 What is an Ontology? From Merriam-Websters Collegiate: Or: A carving up of the worlds meanings Determine what things exist, but not how they inter-relate Related terms:

A branch of metaphysics concerned with the nature and relations of being A particular theory about the nature of being or the kinds of existence Taxonomy, dictionary, category structure Commonly used now in CS literature to describe structures that function as Thesauri Sunday, February 23, 202 0 26 Projecting-Configuration Raining Sequence Snowing Expanding-Configuration Haling Meteorological Sunning

Doing & Happening Creative-Doing Winding Doing-To/With Dispositive-Doing Doing-to/with & Happening Name-Event Nondirected-Happening Nondirected-Doing & Happening Nondirected-Doing Mental-Active Motion-Process Believe Know Cognition Internal-Processing Mental-inactive Think

Perception Reaction Saying & Sensing Addressing Liking Striving Disliking Wanting Fearing Behavioral-Verbals Example of Ontology Non-Addressing External-Processing Addressee-Oriented Proper-Verbals Existence Non-Message-Oriented

Addressing-Verbals Non-Addressee-Oriented Communicative-Attitude Message-Oriented Message-Transfer Part-Whole Generalized-Possession Part Element-List Ownership Name-Of Generalized-Role-Relation Being & Having Ascription-Inverse Property-Of Part-Of

Element-Of Generalized-Possession-inverse Owned-By Age-Property-Ascription Color-Property-Ascription Logical-Property-Ascription Class-Ascription Material-Property-Ascription Modal-Property-Ascription Relating Property-Ascription Provenance-Property-Ascription Ascription UM-Thing Size-Property-Ascription Configuration Use-Property-Ascription Less-Than-Comparison

Scale-Comparison Intensive Identity Greater-Than-Comparison Quantity Quantity-Ascription Inherent Less-Than Contingent Symbolization Distinct Generalized-Positioning Role-Playing Number-Focusing Greater-Than

Name-Relation Exactly Projected At-Least Dynamic-Quality Consequence-Oriented Status-Quality Polar-Quality NonConsequence-Oriented Size Sense-&-Measure-Quality Nonscalable-Quality Color Scalable-Quality Material-World-Quality

Provenance-Class-Quality Taxonomic-Quality Logical-Quality Age Evaluative-Quality Stative-Quality Simple-Quality At-Most Behavior-Quality Nonprojected Class-Quality Material-Class-Quality Logical-Uniqueness Volitional Necessity Nonvolitional

Modal-Quality Ability Conditional Possibility General-Possibility Nonconditional Decomposable-Object UM-Set Disjunctive-Set Past Ordered-Set Present Time-Interval Future One-or-Two-D-Time Ordered-Object

Spatial Element Substance Circumstance One-or-Two-D-Location Temporal NonDecomposable-Object Sunday, February 23, 202 Process 0 Three-D-Time Space-Interval Spatial-Temporal Simple-Thing Conscious-Being Person NonConscious-Thing

Named-Object Abstraction Time-Point Zero-D-Time Space-Point Zero-D-Location Space Female Male Three-D-Location Time Natural-Number Word Name Absolute-Spatial-Temporal Relative-Spatial-Temporal 27

http://www.cogsci.princeton.edu/~wn/5papers.pdf Sunday, February 23, 202 0 28 http://www.cogsci.princeton.edu/~wn/5papers.pdf Sunday, February 23, 202 0 29 Think about suitable question type Homonymy Synonymy Polysemy Metonymy Hyponymy/Hypernym Meronymy Antonymy Sunday, February 23, 202 0 30 Resources

There are lots of lexical resources available these days Word lists On-line dictionaries Corpora The most ambitious one is WordNet A database of lexical relations for English Versions Sunday, February 23, 202 0 for other languages are under development 31 WordNet The critical thing to grasp about WordNet is the notion of a synset; its their version of a sense or a

concept Example: table as a verb to mean defer Synset: set of synonyms, a dictionary-style definition (or gloss), and some examples of uses --> a concept Databases for nouns, verbs, and modifiers > {postpone, hold over, table, shelve, set back, defer, remit, put off} For WordNet, the meaning of this sense of table is this list. Sunday, February 23, 202 0 32 WordNet 2.1 newer than the one in the book POS

Unique Synsets Strings Noun 117097 81426 Verb 11488 13650 Adjective 22141 18877 Adverb 4601 3644 Totals 155327 117597 Sunday, February 23, 202 0 Total Word-Sense Pairs 145104 24890 31302 5720 207016 33 Lexical Relations in WordNet

Sunday, February 23, 202 0 34 Structure of WordNet Sunday, February 23, 202 0 35 Structure of WordNet Sunday, February 23, 202 0 36 Structure of WordNet Sunday, February 23, 202 0 37 WordNet Usage

Available online if you wish to try it http://wordnet.princeton.edu/ Sunday, February 23, 202 0 38 Arabic WordNet ? Sunday, February 23, 202 0 39 Reminder: Project Status Arabic POS Tagger Specific Information Picker An Arabic morphological analyzer An Arabic Spell checker w/ morphology analysis

An Arabic Syntax analyzer Random syntactically-correct Arabic sentence generator An English to Arabic machine translation using word re-ordering Sunday, February 23, 202 0 40 Thank you 41 Sunday, February 23, 202 0

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