Leon Trotsky - Michael Molkentin

Leon Trotsky - Michael Molkentin

Leon Trotsky HSC Modern History Personalities in the Twentieth Century Dr Michael Molkentin Shellharbour Anglican College & The University of New South Wales Canberra Get this PowerPoint: http://www.michaelmolkentin.com/resources/ Outline of lecture 1. The syllabus 2. The examination 3. Key features of Trotskys life 4. Evaluating Trotsky's life 5. Historiography

Principal focus: Through the study of Leon Trotsky, students gain an understanding of the role of this personality in a period of national or international history. Students learn to: ask relevant historical questions locate, select and organise information from different types of sources, including ICT, to describe and analyse relevant features and issues assess the impact of the personality on twentieth-century history analyse the contribution of the personality to the period in which they lived account for and assess differing perspectives and interpretations of the personality evaluate the usefulness and reliability of sources present the findings of investigations on aspects of the personality, analysing and synthesising information from different types of sources communicate an understanding of relevant concepts, features and issues using appropriate and well-structured oral and/or written and/or multimedia forms including ICT. 1 Historical context politics in pre-revolutionary Russia

the 1917 revolution establishment of the Bolshevik/Communist state power struggle with Stalin 2 Background family background and education development of political ideals 3 Rise to prominence emerging political role 19051917 role in 1917 revolution 4 Significance and evaluation role as Commissar for Foreign Affairs role as Commissar for War power struggle following the death of Lenin expulsion from the Communist Party life and activities in exile evaluation: for example practical revolutionary, nave idealist?

The Examination Section 3 Two questions do both Applicable to all 27 personality options (Trotsky is No. 24) 45 minutes Question A (10 marks) - descriptive Question B (15 marks) evaluative 2015 Modern History HSC Examination Section 3 Questions Question A (10 marks) Allow 17 minutes for this section (2-3 mins planning?) Aim to write c. 400 words All questions since 2006: Describe or Outline Describe: provide characteristics and features Outline: Sketch in general terms; indicate the main features of

Forget essay structure- no introduction or conclusion (subheadings OK) Write three or four paragraphs, use them to organise the detail of Trotskys life into themes Question A (10 marks) (a) Describe THREE significant factors which resulted in the prominence of the personality you have studied. (2012 HSC) Paragraph 1: Trotskys role in the 1905 revolution Paragraph 2: Trotskys writing on Marxism, 1906-1917 Paragraph 3: Trotsky's role in the October 1917 Question A (10 marks) Key words on the marking criteria: detail and relevance BREADTH

Trotksys role in October 1917 Trotksys belief about worker involvement in contrast to Lenin Trotskys amends with Lenin and the Bolsheviks during 1917. Trotksys role in the Petersburg Soviet executive during the OctoberNovember general strikes Results and Prospects (1906) and its expression of the

theory of permanent revolution Trotskys work as a war correspondent in 1912-13 in the Balkans Trotskys role in the July Days and his continued disagreements with Lenin Trotsky and the MRC and seizure of power in October DEPTH Trotksys role in the Trotksys writing 1905 revolution between 1906-17

People Places Dates (years) Organisations Titles Quotes (brief) 1 Historical context politics in pre-revolutionary Russia the 1917 revolution establishment of the Bolshevik/Communist state power struggle with Stalin 2 Background family background and education development of political ideals 3 Rise to prominence emerging political role 19051917 role in 1917 revolution

4 Significance and evaluation role as Commissar for Foreign Affairs role as Commissar for War power struggle following the death of Lenin expulsion from the Communist Party life and activities in exile evaluation: for example practical revolutionary, nave idealist? Describe the personal background and the historical context of the personality you have studied. (2008) Describe THREE significant factors which

resulted in the prominence of the personality you have studied. (2012) Describe the significant events in the life of the personality you have studied. (10 marks) Question B (15 marks) Allow 28 minutes for this section (incl. 5 mins planning) Write c. 600 words Treat it as a mini-essay: Develop a thesis that answers the question include a brief introduction and conclusion Use the quotation provided in the question as the focus of your thesis

engage with it in a sustained manner To prepare make sure you have examples of both how Trotsky influenced his context, where he failed to do so and how his context influenced him. How Trotsky influenced his Where Trotsky failed to context influence his context Though not acting alone Trotksy influenced events in 1917 leading up to the revolution: Trotksy failed to achieve his Trotksys revolutionary internationalist goals as ideas were the product to Commissary for Foreign Affairs various influences in his

at Brest-Litovsk in 1918. early years. Eg: His relationship with The Bolshevik leadership the workers helped overruled his attempt to stall bridge the divide negotiations and signed a between the Bolsheviks peace treaty with Germany. and the Soviets. This was cemented when he was elected President of the Petrograd Soviet Role in MRC and planning of the October

insurrection Where Trotskys context influenced him His exposure to class inequality and peasant hardship on his family farm. Liberal ideology of the Spentzer family in Odessa Narodnik ideology of the Orchard Commune in Nikolayev Marxism of Aleksandra Sokolovskaya

Revolutionary Theorist Our Political Tasks (1904) Results and Prospects (1906) Terrorism and Communism (1920) The Revolution Betrayed (1937) Revolutionary Leader President Petersburg Soviet (1905) President

Petersburg Soviet (1917) President of the MRC of the Petrograd Soviet Civil War leadership Revolutionary Critic Conflict with Lenin 1905-1917 Conflict with Stalin (1919-24) Leftist opposition to Stalin Exile writings Details of Trotskys life

Details of Trotskys historical context (from 1. Historical context) 2. Background family background and education development of political ideals - politics in pre-revolutionary Russia 3 Rise to prominence emerging political role 19051917 role in 1917 revolution - the 1917 revolution 4

establishment of the Bolshevik/Communist state power struggle with Stalin Significance and evaluation role as Commissar for Foreign Affairs role as Commissar for War power struggle following the death of Lenin expulsion from the Communist Party life and activities in exile evaluation: for example practical revolutionary, nave idealist?

Politics in pre-revolutionary Russia (Yr 11 content) The reigns of Alexander II and Alexander III Liberal reforms (emancipation of the Serfs, Zemstovo reforms) Russification, Jewish policy (extension of the Pale of settlement) Assassination of AII; repression under AIII The development of reformist/revolutionary politics in Russia Populism Liberalism Marxism Industrialisation in Russia during 1890s and its social impacts Nicholas IIs ascension and his commitment to autocracy 2. Background family background and education

Jewishness Social class Education: Gromokla, Odessa, Nikolaev Relationships: parents, Spentzer Personality Marriage Trotskys My Life https:// www.marxists.org/archive/trotsk y/1930/mylife/1930-lif.pdf development of political ideals

Time with Spentzers, exposure to liberalism Orchard Commune and Franz Shvigovsky and the Narodniki Aleksandra Sokolovskaya and Marxism Imprisonment, exile, escape and encounters with Lenins work Early writing as The Pen and for Iskra RSDLP split, Trotsys criticism of Lenin in Our Political Tasks (1904) 3 Rise to prominence

emerging political role 19051917 Relationship with Bolshevik and Menshevik factions Role in 1905 Petersburg Soviet and arrest Results and Prospects (1906) Permanent revolution Anticipated conflict with the peasantry after a revolution occurs Failed attempts to re-unify RSDLP, conflict with Lenin War correspondent in the Balkans, Western Front role in 1917 revolution

Arrival in Petrograd May 1917 July Days, voluntary arrest and siding with Bolsheviks President of Petrograd Soviet (bridge between Bolsheviks and Soviets) President of Military Revolutionary Council, co-ordination of October revolution 4. Significance and evaluation role as Commissar for Foreign Affairs Role at Brest-Litovsk, conflict with Central Committee role as Commissar for War Establishment of the Red Army, use of Military Specialists Trotskys train Crushing peasant uprisings (and Krondstadt) War Communism and especially Labour Armies Opposition to NEP and conflict with Central Committee power struggle following the death of Lenin

Lenins testament Socialism in One Country vs Permanent Revolution Trotsky vs Stalin (strengths and weaknesses) 4. Significance and evaluation (continued) expulsion from the Communist Party The United Opposition (Trotsky, Kamenev and Zinoviev) The Tenth Anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution- support for Trotsky Expulsion life and activities in exile Alma Ata (1927-29) European exile (1929-1936) My Life (1930) Mexico (1937-1940) The Revolution Betrayed (1937) The Fourth International Assassination

evaluation: for example practical revolutionary, nave idealist? 1. The impact of something in Trotskys life on him (2015) 2. The extent of Trotskys agency: Trotsky vs his context- which influenced which? (2009, 2010, 2014) 3. The nature of Trotskys impact (2012) 4. The extent of Trotskys impact (2005, 2011, 2013) 5. The ways in which historians (and others?) have interpreted Trotsky (2006, 2008) Historiography Three reasons you need to do some work on it: 1. It is one of the explicitly identified skills (account for and assess differing perspectives and interpretations of the personality) 2. Question B in the 2006 and 2008 papers 3. It can help you develop your own evaluation of Trotsky Historiography What you dont need: To read full books on Trotsky

To be able to name-drop historians throughout your response What can be helpful: Three distinct historical perspectives on Trotsky These could be three particular authors eg: Isaac Deutscher (Trotskyist) Richard Pipes (Cold War era Trotsky critic) Robert Service (recent, non-Trotskyist biographer) Historiography What can be helpful: Or broadly different approaches Critical perspectives Positive perspectives Balanced/nuanced/ ambivalent perspectives Historiography - strategies Wikipedia and review websites for book/author summaries

The introductions and conclusions of books Podcasts, interviews with authors (Hitchens vs Service: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cuzXR-5w4Qk; Service on Trotsky: http://www.econtalk.org/archives/2010/07/robert_service.html) Literature reviews: Ken Webb, Leon Trotsky 1879-1940, Get Smart Education, Mona Vale, 2011, pp. 83-88. Ian D. Thatcher, Trotsky, Routledge, Milton Park, 2003, pp. 1-22. Michael Cox, Trotsky and his interpreters: or, will the real Leon Trotsky please stand up?, The Russian Review, vol. 51, no.1, January 1992, pp. 84-102. Trotsky by Ian D. Thatcher Trotsky and the Russian Revolution by

Trotskys key texts Our Political Tasks (1904) Results and Prospects (1906) Terrorism and Communism (1920) My Life: An Attempt at Autobiography (1930) The Revolution Betrayed (1937) Leon Trotsky Internet Archive: https://www.marxists.org/archive/trotsky/ Questions? www.michaelmolkentin.com/resources/

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Objectivism

    Objectivism

    "is as near to an autobiography as I will ever write. It is not an autobiography in the literal, but only in the intellectual sense. The plot is invented, the background is not..." Set in Soviet Russia- focuses on the...
  • Equity an d Ex ce lle nce fo

    Equity an d Ex ce lle nce fo

    EquityandExcellenceforAllStudents. M. S. U. N. ER. A. nn. u. al. S. u. m. mer. C. o. n. f. e. r. e. n. c. e. M. o. n. t. c. l. a. i. r. S. t. a. te. U. n. i....
  • Foot & Ankle

    Foot & Ankle

    Compared with a standard incision for a total hip arthroplasty, a minimally invasive approach using a single incision that is less than 4 inches in length is likely to result in a shorter length of stay in the hospital. less...
  • High Energy Society - Illinois State University

    High Energy Society - Illinois State University

    High Energy Society. Why do we care about energy? What is Energy. Energy is the ability to do work. Stuff that enables us to move an object. Faster movement needs more energy. Heavier object needs more energy. We measure energy...
  • Du`a al-Iftitah

    Du`a al-Iftitah

    Duaa Al-Iftitah. ãÒå·á¯åÂB ã°ã¢åÒáÆ Ø㶠áÌå×ãÇãcBáäoÂB âÈácånáB áYåÊáB áÀáäÊáB âYåËá»åÖáB áÑ . ãUáÇåcáäoÂB áÑ. I am convinced that You are the most Merciful in matters of forgiveness and mercy,
  • Freshman Seminar Daily Agenda

    Freshman Seminar Daily Agenda

    Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas. Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how...
  • Chilean Exports Fresh fruit leads Chile's export mix

    Chilean Exports Fresh fruit leads Chile's export mix

    Chilean Exports. Fresh fruit leads Chile's export mix - Chile emerges as major supplier of fresh fruit to world market due to ample natural resources, consumer demand for fresh fruit during winter season in U.S. and Europe, and incentives in...
  • PHONICS IN RECEPTION ENGLISH ALPHABETIC CODE 44 sounds

    PHONICS IN RECEPTION ENGLISH ALPHABETIC CODE 44 sounds

    Daily handwriting activities- practicing letter formation. Weekly mark making activity . Supporting activities around the classroom. How does it progress over the year? This half term - Taught as a whole class, learn roughly four sounds per week.