Lecture #4 Chapter 9~ Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Date _________ Principles of Energy Harvest Catabolic pathway Fermentation Cellular Respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2 ---> 6CO2 + 6H2O + E (ATP + heat)
Redox reactions Oxidation-reduction OIL RIG (adding e- reduces + charge) Oxidation is e- loss; reduction is e- gain Reducing agent: edonor Oxidizing agent:eacceptor Oxidizing agent in respiration NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) Removes electrons from
food (series of reactions) NAD + is reduced to NADH Enzyme action: dehydrogenase Oxygen is the eventual eacceptor Electron transport chains
Electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) Shuttles electrons that release energy used to make ATP Sequence of reactions that prevents energy release in 1 explosive step Electron route: food---> NADH ---> electron transport chain ---> oxygen Cellular respiration Glycolysis: cytosol;
degrades glucose into pyruvate Krebs Cycle: mitochondrial matrix; pyruvate into carbon dioxide Electron Transport Chain: inner membrane of mitochondrion; electrons passed to oxygen Glycolysis
1 Glucose ---> 2 pyruvate molecules Energy investment phase: cell uses ATP to phosphorylate fuel Energy payoff phase: ATP is produced by substrate-level phosphorylation and NAD+ is reduced to NADH by food oxidation Net energy yield per glucose
molecule: 2 ATP plus 2 NADH; no CO2 is released; occurs aerobically or anaerobically Glycolysis QuickTime and a Cinepak decompressor are needed to see this picture. Krebs Cycle
If molecular oxygen is present. Each pyruvate is converted into acetyl CoA (begin w/ 2):CO2 is released; NAD+ ---> NADH; coenzyme A (from B vitamin), makes molecule very reactive From this point, each turn 2 C atoms
enter (pyruvate) and 2 exit (carbon dioxide) Oxaloacetate is regenerated (the cycle) For each pyruvate that enters: 3 NAD+ reduced to NADH; 1 FAD+ reduced to FADH2 (riboflavin, B vitamin); 1 ATP molecule Krebs Cycle QuickTime and a Cinepak decompressor
are needed to see this picture. Electron transport chain Cytochromes carry electron carrier molecules (NADH & FADH2) down to oxygen Chemiosmosis: energy coupling mechanism
ATP synthase: produces ATP by using the H+ gradient (protonmotive force) pumped into the inner membrane space from the electron transport chain; this enzyme harnesses the flow of H+ back into the matrix to phosphorylate ADP to ATP (oxidative phosphorylation) Electron Transport QuickTime and a Cinepak decompressor are needed to see this picture.
Review: Cellular Respiration Glycolysis: 2 ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) Krebs Cycle: 2 ATP (substrate-level phosphorylation) Electron transport & oxidative
phosphorylation: 2 NADH (glycolysis) = 6ATP 2 NADH (acetyl CoA) = 6ATP 6 NADH (Krebs) = 18 ATP 2 FADH2 (Krebs) = 4 ATP 38 TOTAL ATP/glucose Related metabolic processes Fermentation: alcohol~ pyruvate to ethanol lactic acid~ pyruvate
to lactate Facultative anaerobes (yeast/bacteria) Beta-oxidation lipid catabolism
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