Lecture #23 Date - Biology Junction

Lecture #23 Date - Biology Junction

Lecture #23 Date ____ 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 2 1 Chapter 53 ~ Community Ecology 4 Community structure 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 Community~ an assemblage of populations living close enough together for potential interaction Richness (number of species) &

abundance. Species diversity Hypotheses: Individualistic~ chance assemblage with similar abiotic requirements Interactive~ assemblage locked into association by mandatory biotic interactions 2 1 4 Interactions 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 Interspecific (interactions between populations of different species within a community): Predation

including parasitism; may involve a keystone species/predator Competition Commensalism Mutualism 2 1 4 Predation defense Cryptic (camouflage) coloration 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 Aposematic (warning) coloration

Mimicry~ superficial resemblance to another species Batesian~ palatable/ harmless species mimics an unpalatable/ harmful model Mullerian~ 2 or more unpalatable, aposematically colored species resemble each other 2 1 4 Competition: a closer look 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 Interference~ actual fighting over resources Exploitative~ consumption

or use of similar resources Competitive Exclusion Principle (Lotka / Volterra)~ 2 species with similar needs for the same limiting resources cannot coexist in the same place Gause experiment 2 1 4 Competition evidence 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 Resource partitioning ~

sympatric species consume slightly different foods or use other resources in slightly different ways Ex: Anolis lizard sp. perching sites in the Dominican Republic Character displacement~ sympatric species tend to diverge in those characteristics that overlap 2 1 4 Ex: Darwins finch beak size on the Galapagos Islands The Niche 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011

Ecological niche~ the sum total of an organisms use of biotic and abiotic resources in its environment; its ecological role fundamental~ the set of resources a population is theoretically capable of using under ideal conditions realized~ the resources a population actually uses Thus, 2 species cannot coexist in a community if their niches are identical 2 1 4 Ex: Barnacle sp. on the coast of Scotland

Succession 0011 0010 1010 1101 0001 0100 1011 Ecological succession~ transition in species composition over ecological time Primary~ begun in lifeless area; no soil, perhaps volcanic activity or retreating glacier Secondary~ an existing community has been cleared by some disturbance that leaves the soil intact 2 1 4

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